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ALBERT R. MANN 
LIBRARY 

New York State Colleges 

OF 

Agriculture and Home Economics 

AT 

Cornell University 




EVERETT FRANKLIN PHILLIPS 
BEEKEEPING LIBRARY 



PRICE-ONE SHILLING 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA 





THE 



Honey Flora of Victoria 



By F. R. IBEUHNE 

GOVERNMENT APICULTURIST 




BLOSSOM OF SUGAR GUM 

(Eucalyptus cladocalyxj 




By Authority : 
Albert J. Mullett. Government Printer, Melbourne. 




fVhol!)i set up and pTinleci in Australia, 1922 
Registered by tlie Postmaster-General for transmission through the post as a hook 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924003448655 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA 



HONEY FLORA 

OF 

VICTORIA 



F. R. BEUHNE, 

GOVERNMENT APICULTURIST. 



PRICE-ONE SHILLING 



By Authority: 
Albert J. Mullett, Government Printer, Melbourne. 



FOREWORD. 

This publication originated in a number of articles which were 
published in Tlie Journal of Agriculture between October, 1914, and 
February, 1918, to supply authentic information in plain language con- 
cerning the native flora of Victoria, particularly from the honey- 
producer's point of view. 

It is to be looked upon as the frame-work of a structure lacking 
nluch of the material necessary for its 'completion, and this issue is 
published principally with the object of getting into touch with addi- 
tional sources of information, as well as to check that so far collected 
and published herewith. 

Much of the matter as originally published in The Journal of 
Agriculture has been extensively revised as the result of additional data 
obtained since, but more is still incomplete, and the author cordially 
invites the co-operation of those able to assist in making this bulletin 
as complete and correct as possible. 

A considerable number of native plants of apicultural and other 
economic value still remain to be dealt with, as also many introduced 
species, some of which are of great importance. Such information will 
be included in a future issue. 

F. R. Beuhne. 
June, 1922. 



Victorian Eucalypts — ■continued. 



Coiumoti Xaine. 



Botanical Name. 



Honey 
Pollen. 



Districts. 



Page 



Gkoup I. — Box Trees — continued. 

Scented Box (Scented Peppermint) 
But-But 

Apple Box (Apple Tree, Apple Gum, 
Black Butt) 



II. — Smooth B.iek or Gum Group, 

River Red Gum 
Forest Red Gum 
Yellow Gum (White Gum, White 

Ironbark, Blue Gum in South Au.s- 

tralia) 
Sugar Gum 

Blue Gum 

Spotted Blue Gum (Blue Gum, 

Spotted Gum) 
Manna Gum (White Gum, Ribbon 

Gum) 
Candle Bark Gum 
Gully Gum (White Gum) 
White Brittle Gum 
Swamp Gum (White Gum) 

Cider Gum 

Dwarf Gum 

Neglected Gur 

Sallow Gum 

Spotted Gum 

Shinmg Gum (White Gum, Silver-top 

Gum) 
Mountain Grey Gum (Spotted Gum) 

White Sallee (Willow Gum, White 

Gum) 
Snow Ctuiu 
Black Sallee 
Scribbly Gum 
Sandal Gum 



Brown Messmate) 



III- — Stringybark Group. 

Messmate (in Tasmania and South 

Australia Stringybark) 
Red Stringybark 
Brown Stringybark 
AVhite Stringybark .' ' ][ 

Yellow Stringybark 
Yertchuk (White Ash) 
Mealy Stringybark 
Silver Stringybark . . [] 

Red Mountain Ash 

Grampians Gum 



E. odorata . . 
E. Bridgesianu 
E. Stuartiana 



E. rostrata . . 
E. tereticornis 
E. leucoxylon 



E. dadocalyx. Syn. E. 

corynocalyx 
E. globulus . . 
E. Maideni 

E. viminalis 

E. rubida 

E. Smithii . . 

E. maculosa 

E. ovata. Syn. E. palu- 

dosa 
E. Ounnii . . 
E. Kitsoniana 
E. Livingstonia 
E. camphora 
E. maculata 
E. nitens 



E. goniocalyx 



E. 



E. coriacea. Syn. 

pauciflora 
E. coriacea. Var. alpina 
E. stellulata 
E. hcemastoma 
E. diversifolia. Syn. E. 

santalifolia 



E. obliqua . . 

E. macrorrhyiicha 

E. capitellata 

E. eugenioides 

E. Muelleriana 

E. Consideniana 

E. cinerea . . 

E. cinerea. Var. miilti- 

Jtora 
E. gigantea. Syn. E. 

Drdegate nsis 
E. alpina 



H. 

H. 

H. P. 



H. P. 

H. P. 

H. 



H. P. 

H. P. 
H. P. 

H. P. 

H. P. 

H. P. 

h!p. 

H. P. 

h! P. 
h! p. 

H. P. 
H. P. 
H. P. 

H. 



H. P. 



H. P. 



N.W. 
N.E., E. 
S.W.,S., 
N.E., E. 



All 

N.E., E. 

N.W.,S.W., 

S. 

N.W. 

S., N.E.,E. 

S.W., E. 

All 

All 
E. 
E. 

S.W., s., 

N.E., E. 

S., E. 

E. 

N.E. 
N.E. 

E. 

E. 

S.W., s., 

N.E., E. 

S., N.E.,E. 

N.E. 

N.E. 

N.E., E. 

S.W. 



N.E., E., 

S.W., s. 

S.,N.E.,E. 

All 

N.E., E. 

E. 

E., S. 

N.E. 

N.E., S.E. 

S.E. 

S.W. 



22 
24 
26 



28 
30 
32 



34 

36 

38 

40 

42 
44 
45 
46 

48 
48 
48 
48 
50 
52 

52 

54 

54 
56 

58 
60 



62 

64 
66 
68 
70 

72 
74 
74 

76 

78 



ViCTOKiAN EucAbYPTs — continued. 



Common Name. 



IV. — Ihonbark Groui'. 

Red Ironbark, Rough Ironbark, 

Black Ironbark 
Grey Ironbark . . 
Silvertop (Mountain Ash) Ironbark 



V. — Wrinkled Bark Group. 

M ahogany Gum 
Bloodwood 
Black Butt 
WooUv Butt 



VI. — Peppermint Group. 

Giant Gum (White Mountain Ash) . . 

Common Peppermint (Narrow-leaf 
Peppermint) 

Broad-leaf Peppermint (Blue Pepper- 
mint) 

Sj'dney Peppermint (Peppermint 
Gum) 

Whitetop Gum (Peppermint, Silver- 
top Messmate) 

River White Gum 



VII. — Mallee Group. 

Bull MaUee 

Hooked Mallee (Black Mallee) 

Slender Mallee (Red Mallee) 

Oil Mallee (Water Mallee) 
Giant Mallee 
Angular Giant Mallee 

White Mallee . . 

Blue Mallee 
Green Mallee 



Botanical Name 



E. sideroxyloii 

E. paniculata 
E. Sieberiana 



E. botryoides 
E. coryrnbosa 
E. pilularis 
E. longifolia 



E. regnans . . 

E. Australiana. Syn 

E. amygdalina 
E. dives 

E. piperita . . 

E. vitrea 

E. radiata . . 



E. Behriana 

E. uncinata 

E. calycogona. Syn. E. 
gracilis 

E. oleosa 

E. incrassata 

E. incrassata. Var. 

angulosa 

E. dumosa. Syn. E. in- 
crassata. Var. dumosa 

E. polybractea 

E. viridis. Syn. E. 
acacioides 



Honey 
Pollen. 



II. 



H. P. 



n. p. 


E. 


H. 


E. 




E. 


H. 


E. 



H. P. 
H. 

H. P. 



H. P. 



H. P. 
H. P. 



N.W., N.E.. 


80 


E. 


82 


N.S., E. 


84 



S.,N.E.,E. 
S., N.E., E. 

N.E., S.W. 

E. 

E. 

E. 



N.W., S. 
N.W. 
N.W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 
N.W. 

N.W. 

N.W. 
N.W. 



Page. 



90 
92 



94 
96 

98 

100 

102 

104 



106 
108 
110 

112 

114 
114 

116 

116 
118 



The Honey Flora 



OF 



Victoria. 



Three factors govern success in hee culture, namelj, locality, 
management, and the right strain of bees. Of these threei, the first 
named is the most important, for, without a suitable locality, the best 
of management and the test strain of bees cannot produce good results, 
while, even with poor management and an inferior strain of bees, fairly 
good results are sometimes obtained in good honc.y districts. 

A good locality for bees means to have within range of the flight 
of the bees sufficient honey and polleu producing plants of the right 
kind. It is a question of quality of flora rather than quantity. For 
the beginner, it is by no means easy to select a locality suitable for bee- 
keeping, as the relative merits of the various Eucalypts and oif other 
honey-producing plants are as yet little known, and have, so far, not 
been dealt with, from the apiarist's point of view, in any publication. 
The information available is the result of the obseTvatioms of bee-keepers 
in different parts of Victoiia made in recent years, and, as many of the 
Eucalypts pass under different names in difiierent districts, and nectar 
]>roductioii is influenced by climatic influences and other causes, absolute 
accuracy and completeness is not possible. Of some of the Eucalypts 
nothing is known as to the amount and character of honey obtained 
from them by the bees, but they are enumerated and illustrated to 
facilitate identificatioiii of others. 

In the difficult attempt to' deecribei thei various species of Eucalypts 
in a way which will enable the reader to' distinguish one from another 
by means of the' illustrations, the' technical terms which occur in the 
botanical works upion which the descriptions are based are, as far as 
possible, avoided. For the sake of brevity, and tO' avoid repietition, it 
will, however, be convenient to use at least a few of tliese terms. For 
identification, the reader is invited to rely mainly on a comparison of 
the shape and veins of the leaves, the shape and number in one cluster 
of the buds, flowers, and seed vessels, and the appearance of the sucker 
leaves (where shown). The illustrations are reproduced from Forest 
Flora of New South Wales, by kind periuission of Mr. J. H. Maiden, 
Government Botanist of ISTew South Wales, and from F. von Mueller's 
Eucalypts of Australia. 

The information as to the' chaiacter of the honey from diffcTent 
Eucalypts, the time of blossoming, length oif time in bud, pollen or not 
pollen producing, is based upcn mate-rial supplied by a number of 
apiarists and on the writer's own observations. 



10 Tlic Honey Flora uf Victoria. 



Victorian Eucalypts. 

I. Box Group. 

The Yello\\' Box-Thee (Eucali/ptns mcliiodoru). 

Fig. 1. 

The Yellow Box or hoiitiy-scented jKucalypt is uudoiabtedly the most 
valuable nectar-yielding tree of Victoria. It is a middle-sized tree, but 
attains eixceptioually a lieight of 200 feeit and a stem diameteir of 8 feet 
at the base. The. bark is outside brownish -grey, inside yellowish; it 
covers the. greater )jart and sometimes the entirei stem, of the tree. There 
is, however, great variation in the. appearancei of thei trunk and alsoi the 
branches of individual trees. In soniei spe'cimens th« rough bark covers 
orilv a few feet of the stem ne.ar thei ground, the rest being smooth and 
giving the. tree at first sight the appearance of a White Gum, while 
othe.r trees sometimes growing near by have the. entirei stem and the 
branches covered with rough bark, thus resembling somewhat thei Black 
liox ol the iMaUee, or, when the bark is of a greyish tmge, the Pepper- 
mint. Yellow Box does not, however, grow in the same localities. Black 
Box being confined to drier and Peppermint to moister districts.. A 
comparison of the threei showsi that the leaves of the Yellow Boix are 
broader than those of the other two., and the veins are differently placed, 
particularly the marginal vein. Also in the PeppeTiiiint the number of 
flowers earned in one umbel is much larger. 

The branches of the Yellow Box are. mostly, but not always, smooth, 
often drooping ; the branchlets are mostly very slender. The leaves are 
narrow, not very long, mostly of a, dull-green on both sides. The small 
flowers are from 4 to 7 (seldom 3 or 8) in an umbel (cluster). Seen 
from a distance the foliage of young trees often has a decidedly bluish 
tinge in comparison with other Eucalypts growing near it. The wood 
is yellowish in colour, very tough and hard when dry. It is used for 
spokes, naves, cogs, rollers, sleepers, and telegraph poles. 

The Yellow Box is widely distributed over Victoria, but is rarely 
found where the average annual rainfall is over 30 or under 15 inches 
and rarely ascends to high elevations. In the weistern part of the State 
it grows usually m company with, or at no great distance from Eed 
Gum, Yellow Gum, and Stnngybark, while, in the. Central NortheTli 
and Eastern districts it is also associated with Grey Box and Red P ' 
It blossoms e.ve.ry second year from Nove.inbe.r till February Genera°n ' 
speaking it flowers to the west of the longitude o.f Melbourne' one 
year, and to the east of it the following season. There are ho.wev*..r 
exceptions, certain areas m the western bloss ' " ' "^vti, 

trees in the eastern half, and, as might b 



exceptions, certain are.as in the western blossoming the. same, vear th 
trees in the eastern half, and, as might be. e\-np.rtori +i • ^^ 

1 -i. J.-U • ■ T -T ,. *=-^pei-i.ea, there is some 

irregularity on the imaginary dividing line. auiue 

Nothing definitei is yet known as. to why nearly all the. Yell 
trees in a district blossom the same year. It is sugo-e t 1 ^""^ "^ 
that as blossom buds appear on new growths onlv and*' ^ ' "'^^'^^i'- 
made by the trees in a. drought year, it follo.ws that all t'^"' '^'"^ 7°*"^ ''' 
be brought into, the flowering stage in the. same year "^^ "^ *'^^"^ 

The buds of the Yellow Box become, visible ten to. tw 1 
before flowering, which occurs during November Dp.rt.n^k'^ ^^'-r ™°'i^ths 

' fi-eiuoer, .Januan', 



Victorian Eucalypts. 



II 



and Feibruary. As witli many other Eucaly])t.s, there are some trees 
which blossom out of season. 

Yellow Box honey is perhaps the best liked and best known of our 
Victorian ho-neys. When quite free from other honeys (which it seldom 
is), it is of a pale, straw colour, very dense, aromatic, with a pronounced 
flavour. It keeps liquid abiiost indefinitely when free from Red Gum 
homey. So far as is known, bees do not collect pollen from Yellow Box 




Fig. 1. — ^The Yellow Box (Eucalyptus melUodora, A. Cunn.). 

blossom. Pollen which by some apiarists was credited to this source 
was, by means of the microscope, proved of different origin (wattle or 
grasis tree). Where pollen-yielding plants are absent during the Yellow 
Box honey flow, the worker force of the colonies of bees generally 
diminishes owing to restricted repToducticn, and queen bees raised during 
this period are of little value. 



12 Tlic Jloiirij Fliii-(i of V irtiir'ia. 



The Grey Vox {F. m-dhi jftiin li-ciiiipjilom). 

Fig. 2. 

This treei is known in diffeu'ent parts of thei State as Grey Bocx, 
Box, White Box, and Black Box, usually in consequence of thei lighter 
or darker colour of the bark produced under different conditions of 
climate and soil. 

It is as a rule not a large treei, attaining a height of 80 to 100 feet 
with a maximum of 140. The bark is from light to dark-grey, but 
slightly furrowed, and extends to- the base, of the- branches, which are 
smooth or with a flaky bark, hence the botanical name, Heniiphloia 
(half bark). The lea.ves are broad lance-shapied, someitimes up to 5 or 6 
inches m length, thick and rigid and greyish on both sides. The veins 
of the leaves are prominent, the lateral ones oblique, the marginal ones' 
somewhat removed from the edge. The flowers are mostly in clusters of 
four to eight on the same season's new wood, and, therefore, projecting 
mostly beyond the older foliagei, and making the- flowering tree very 
conspicuous. The buds are conical, and become first visible from three 
to six months before flowering, which occurs from February to June, 
varying in different districts and in different seasons. The fruit is 
cylindiical and rather small. 

The timber is pale, hard, durable, and highly valued for railway 
sleepers, telegraph poles, mining jsrops; also extensively used as firewocd. 
Thei Grey Box is widely distributed over Northern and Western Vic- 
toria., occurring within 10 miles of Melboumei, but absent in country with 
a rather heavy rainfall and in Gippsland, the tree known there as Grey 
Box being E. Bosistoana. It is usually found growing in company 
with Yellow Box, Eed Box, Stringybark, or Long-leaf Box, and near 
the Malice, Yellow Gum. To the bee-keeper it is one of the most 
important and useful Eucalypts, being very regular in its flowering 
habits, and producing more or less nectar and pollen every year 
Althongh the individual trees^ blossem e-very second year there, are seme 
111 flower every year, enabling the colonies of bees to- breed up m autumn 
and lay m winter stores, even when no actual surplus honey can be 
obtained from hives. Bees usually gather great quantities of pollen from 
Grey Box, which often is the only available source at the end of the 
honey season. 

The honey is of excellent flavour, medium density when fully rine 
wl '^ c-olour when free from other hcneys, but candies rather quickly' 
When heating Grey Box honey to reliquify it after it has granulated or 
at time of extracting, care should be. taken that the temperature. do«= 
not rise beyond 165° Fahr., otherwise it may darken considerably parti- 
cularly when m contact with iron, or tinned containers 

Further it should be noted that in contact with untmned iron such 
as occurs at the edges of the lever tops and the seams of honey tins the 
tanmc acid of the. honey will, in a moist atmosphere., react on the iron 
causing an iirky blackness which when diffused throughout the contenta 
of the tin will considerably discolour the. honey, so.metime. givinfu a 
dark-violet tinge. This discolouration will also occur when unripeVre.' 
Box honey late m autumn is extracted from the combs in . V,Au, ,^^1 :. 
or rusty extractor 



m the combs in a badly tinned 



Victorian Eucalypts. 



13 



Wli€'ii the honey is heated at time of extracting and drawn into 
brightly tinned paoltages and hermeitically sealed, littlei or' noi diaooloiura- 
tion will take place, and candying will be delayed considerably. 

Some years ago it. was assumed by a number of beiei-keiepers that under 
certain conditions Grey Box honey, as winter stoi-es, was detrimental 
to the health and vitality of bees. Experiments made at the Govern- 




Fig. 2. — The Grey Box (Eucalyptus hemiphhia, F. v. M.). 

ment Apiary, however, do not support that assumption, as colonies put 
exclusively on both sealed and unsealed combs of Grey Box honey 
wintered splendidly. The decline or extinction of the stocks which 
originated this belief was probably the result of impaired vitality of the 
bees caused by a shortage of iiollen during the rearing of the young bees 
previous to the flowering of the Grey Box . 



14 The Honei/ Flora of Victoria. 



White Box (Encalypius hemipJiloia albeiK^). 

This tree which in some localities is known as Blue Box owing to 
the distinctly bkiish appearance of the foliage when seen from a dis- 
tance, was at one time considered to' be merely a variety of Buc. hemi- 
phloia. The bark of theWlrite BoK is, ho-wever, usually someiwhat whiter 
than that of Grey Box, the leaves, flowers, and fruits are. largei', and 
the tree grows as a rule on higher ground. The trunk has a tendency to 
become hollow at a comparatively early age. It flowers earlier in tke 
season, and is freely worked on by the bees for nectar and pollen. As 
it precedes the Grey Box by about a month it is very valuable to the bee- 
keeper in providing a pollen supply to get the colonies into good working 
condition for the. Grey Box bloom, as there is often a dearth of pollen 
just before.. 



The Red Box (Eucalyptus polyanthemos) . 

Fig. 3. 

The Reid Bocs, in somo localities called Pe.pperrmint or Peppermint 
Box, or Lignum Vitae, is a. tree of fair size, not often very straight in 
the trunk. It is generally found on rather poor land, on stony or 
gravelly rise.s and ironstone ridges in districts with a comparatively small 
rainfall. The. bark is generally dark-grey, persistent, rough and fur- 
rowed, and continues right up to the small branches. The leaves are 
broad, oval, or egg-shaped pointed, on rather long leaf stalks, the veins 
strongly marked, the. marginal one re.moved from the edge, particularly 
so in the sucker leaves, the lateral veins oblique, and distant. The 
flowers are generally on Jiew growth, but also, as laterals on the previous 
seaaon's wood in umbels of 3 — 6 small flowers. Tlie buds, which are 
roundish, appear from ten to twelve, months before flowering, which 
occurs from September to November. It is fairly regular in flowering, 
some trees ©very year, a greater number every second year. The fruits 
are pear-sha.ped. The blo.ssom does not yield pollen to bees in any 
cjuantities worthy of consideration. The honey is on© of the palest, but 
rather dull in appearance, very dense, and on this account very difficult 
to extract fro.m the oombs. It has generally, but not always, a somewhat 
oily or tallowy flavour, not noticed, however, by palates iised to it. When 
quit© free from other honey it does not candy. Blended with other 
honeys it gives body and reduces the colour. When kept for at least 
twelve months the oily taste almost disapp.ears. 

The timber of this tree is hard, red in colour, the gram interlocked. 
It is a durable wood used to. some extent for railway sleepers, mining 
props, and firewoo.d. 



Victorian, Evcahjpts. 



15 



•\ 



/■ J^ 



.<t-. 






^.. 




5^ ..w!^ 



?*■• 



1i>\, 



•V- 










Fig. 3. — The Red Box (Eucalyptus polyanthemos, Schauer), 



k; 



I'Ik- Uoiiri/ Flora of ]'iclona. 



The Fuzzy Box (Eucalyptus Bauenana). 

The Fuzzy Box, also known as Eound-leaf Box, is closely allied to 
the Red Box'(/i. polyanthemos), of which it was formerly held to bea 
variety It is found only in the eastern part of Victoria, particularly m 
the Lake Tyers and Tambo districts. In general appearance and habit 
of flowering it differa but. little from Red Box, but thei leaves, although 
round, often have a, long narrow point and are. wavey at the edge. 
Where Fuzzy Bos and Red occur in the. sacme^ locality the last-named 
cccupies the higher p round, while the flowcT buds ol Red Box are round 
ended, and of Fuzzy Box more pointed. 

As a honey producer it is, however, quite distinct from the latter, the 
honey being clearer, slightly less dense, and without the somewhat objec- 
tionable oily flavour of Red Box honey. It flowers September to 
November. 



The Long-i.eae Box {E . elceophora. Syn. E. Camhayei). 

Fig. 4. 

This tree is found intermixed with other Eucalypts generally on poor 
soil and rocky hills, but also in more favorable situations in and around 
the Grampians, the Wimmera, Pyrenees, Upper Avoca, and the drier 
central part of the Dividing Range north of Melbourne, and in moister 
localities further east. It is known by many diiJerent names in different 
localities, such as Bastard Box, Apple Tree, Cabbage Gum, Grey Box, 
and even as Peppermint about Ararat, to which latter {E. amygda- 
lina) it bears no resemblance whatever. It is a stunted tree, rarely 
straight, seldom up toi 3 feet in diameter. The bark, which is thick, 
soiinetinies very lO'Ugh but not fibrous, covers the trunk and larger 
branches ; it is from light grey to- brown in colo'ur, fairly even sometime®, 
but rough, harsh, and furrowed in some localities. The wood is coarse, 
from light to dark-brownish grey in colour, thci sap wood often veiry 
thick. As a timber it is almost useless, decays rapidly, and is even of 
little value as fuel. 

The leaves are long, lance, and slightly sickle-shaped, of equal coloui 
on both sides, the veins thin, moderately spreading, the marginal vein 
somewhat removed from the edge; the flower stalks are broadly com- 
pressed, tlie buds markedly angular, with a conical pointed lid, are in 
single clusters of from four to seven flowers; the fruits are half-efo- 
shaped, lined by two to four angles, and three or four celled. 

The Long-leaf Box is easily distinguished from other Eucalypts, in 
the company of which it is found ty its angular buds and fruits normally 
arranged in the shape, of a. star with one bud in the centre Till 
recently this tree was considered to be a dwarf variety of the Mountain 
or Grey Gum {E . iioniocah/x) (Fig. 25), which is very similar in leaf 
flower, and fruit, but very distinct in general appearance. Since classi- 
fication of the Long,-leaf Box as a distinct species, the botanical name, 
E gonvocalyx should now be dropped by bee-keepers in favour of E 
I'hiiiiphora (Olive Barked Box). 

From a bee-keeper's point of view this is in several respects a remark- 
able tree. It flowers at irregular intervals of four, five, or more years 
but then often two years m succession. It is probabh' lono-er in bUd 



]' ictoridit luiculijpls. 



17 



(eigliteen to twenty-one months) than any other Eucalypt; it is a 
prolific yielder of pollen for bees. It blossoms from March, often right 




"D.O p m 



Fig. 4. — The Longleaf Box {Eucalyptus eUmphora. Syn. E. Cambagei). 

through the winter. The honey is medium dark, but of fair flavour, and 
bees invariably winter well on it; it candies coarsely, but not hard. 



18 The Hniici/ Flora of Vitloria. 



The Black Box {Eucalyptus bicolor). 

Fig. 5. 

This is a diy-couiitry Eucalypt, it is found in the West and North- 
West of Victoria, between Swan Hill and Mildura, extending southward 
across the Adelaide-Melbourne railway line and to the western base 
of the Grampians, chiefly on the black soil of Mallee swamps. It is 
known by many different names, such as Swamp Box, Dwarf Bo'X, Scrub 
Box, River Box, Drooping Box and Red Box, the last named on account 
of the reddish colour of the wood. 

This tree may grow to a height of 120 feet, but in some situations 
little more than a large shrub. As a tree it is of a spreading and droop- 
ing habit with a general resemblance' to Yellow Box. The ash-grey or 
blackish bark continues, however, on to the small branches. The wood 
is reddish, with very little sapwood, hard interlocked and very durable. 
It is to some extent used for fencing where straighter timber is absent. 

The leaves are long narrow lance-shaped, not very thick, the veins 
fine, not close, the marginal vein at a distance from the edge of the 
leaf. The flowers are small, white, with sometimes pinkish or even 
crimson blossoms on the same tree, hence the botanical name " bicolor " 
(two-coloured). The umbels or clusters carry three to eight flowers in 
sprays at the end of branchlets ; the buds are egg-shaped with rounded 
tops; the fruit is small cup-shaped, contracted at the top. 

The Black Box blossoms in January and February, lasting about 
six weeks. Like Yellow Box, it blossoms ©very second year, the buds 
appear about eleven months before. The honey of this tree is of good 
quality, often very dense, but not so pale as that of yellow box; it is, 
however, doubtful whether it is ever obtained free from admixtures of 
honey from other sources. It yields pollen to bees, and is one of the 
best bee forage trees of the districts in which it grows. 



Vict or tan Eucalypts. 



19 




^'^i\\K.'^ 













Fig. 5. — ^The Black Box {Eucalyptas bicolor, A. Cunn.). 



2(» 



The JIoiici/ Flora of Viclonn. 



GiPPSLAND Box (E Ileal y ptus Bosintoana). 
Fig. 6. 

A tall tree nmuing up to over 150 feet with a stem diameter of 3 to 
4 feet. The bark is rough ou the trunk at the base, but smoother 

towards and on the' branches, often giving the tree the appearance of a 
Gum. The leaves are mostly narrow lance-shaped, but variable in 
shape on the younger trees, they are^ generally dull green on both side's, 
the veins are faint, rather far apart, the marginal vein removed from 
the edge of the leaf. The leaves of young se'edlings are roundish or egg- 
shaped, stalked and scattered on the stem. The umbels are few-flowered, 
and at the shoulders of leaves; the buds are egg-shaped, with a. pointed 
Hd. The fruit' is comparatively small, nearly half-egg-shaped, with five 
to six, rarely four cells, and a narrow rim. 

The wood is close-grained, bro\^mish to yellowish-white in colour, 
and very durable; it is used for piles, railway sleepers, bridge-decking, 
wag.gon-frameg, spokes, felloes, fence posts, and sawn timber. 

This tree is in Victoria confined to the eastern parts, occurring 
chiefly in the Bairnsdale district. It is kno^vn by various local an^ 
confusing names, such as Bairnsdale Boix, Bc«. Bastard Box, Grey Bok, 
and Yellow Box. 

Pollen is gathered from the blossoms by bees, the flowering occurring 
generally in February or March. Owing to its flowering concurrently 
with other eucalypts in the same locality, no data are yet available of 
the character of the' honey obtained from it. It is not a very reliable' 
source of nectar. 



Victorian Eucalypts. 



21 




Fig. 6. — Gippsland Box (Euralfiptn.s Bosistoaua, V. v. M.). 



22 



The Iloncii Flora of Victoria. 



The Scented Box {Eucalyptus odorata). 
Fig. 7. 

A medium-sized or rather small tree, with greyish rough hard box 
bark, hence also called Box Tree. It is classed as one of the Peppermint 
trees on account of the scent of the leaves, which suggested the specific 
name " odorata." The timber is of fair quality, although seldom of 
large dimensions; it lasts well underground, is very tough, and used in 
a manner like that of Yellow Box {E . meUiodora), of which it is an allied 
species; the habit of the two trees is much the same, but the Scented 
Box is found chiefly on limestone ridges, principally in the north-west 
of Victoria. 

The leaves are scattered, narrow lance-shaped, rarely broad, often on 
comparatively short stalks, rather dull-green oa" soanewhat shining, of 
equal colour on both sides ; the clusters of flowers occur singly at the 
shoulders of leaves or in short sprays with from three to nine flowers ; 
the buds are broad conical to pointed, half round, tapering into the short 
stalklet; the fruits bell-egg-shaped, three to five celled. This species 
although classed formerly as a, Peppermint, proiducee a honey closely 
resembling that of thei Fuzzy Box {E . Baiicriaiia) and the Bed Box. (E. 
/mli/anthemos), being pale and non-candying, without, however, the oily 
or tallowy flavour, when new, of the last-named. The Scented Box a-lso 
resembles Red and Fuzzy Box in that no pollen is gathered from the 
blossom by bees. 



Victorian Eucalypts. 



2.'i 



/. ■,' 



K 



/A' 



Mi ' 









"N;-:%, '"^n^a 



/ / 



f /^ 






y 



f7 









ii 









^ 



n Mm 



ip^* 



1 , . 






Fig. 7. — The Scented Box {EucalypHts cdorata, Behr). 



■24: 



Tilt: lloiietj Flora of Vicinna. 



The But-But (Kiuuili/ptus Biuli/rsimui, R. T. Baker). 

Fig. 8. 

This eucalypt was formerly considered to be identical with, or a 
variety of, the Apple Gum {Eucalyptm Stuartiana) It is, however, 
now classed as a distinct species. It differs from K btuarhana in 
generally having much longer leaves, less flowers m a cluster,^ a whitish- 
grey box-like bark, instead of a red stringy bark, and a whitish-brown 
instead of a red-coloured timber. 

It is a tree of considerable size, with a whitish-grey wrinkled, or 
checkered, bark, short and brittle in the grain, not fibrous, and almost 
identical with that of the Boxes. The bark, when freshly cut, exhales 
an aroma similar to the ordinary eucalyptus oil. 

The sucke-r leaves (1, 2, 3, Fig. 8) are (in the early stage, egg heart- 
shaped, and then pointed egg-shaped, on stalks or stalklets opposite or 
alternate. The mature leaves have rather long stalks, are pointed, 
lance-shaped, often somewhat curved, and vary in length to over 12 
inches. The leaves are not shining, the lateral veins spreading, either 
prominent or faint ; the marginal vein well removed from the edge ; the 
clusters on flattened stalklets carry about seven flowers ; the lower half of 
the bud is half egg-shaped, the lid half-round, blunt or pointed. The 
fruit is half-round, rarely conical, on a short stalk; the rim is thickened 
with a ring below the edge. 

The Eut-But flowers in January and February, in the North-East 
beitween January and April ; thei freiquenoy of blossoming, hoiwever, is 
uncertain. The hcney is of fair quality. The timber is fairly hard, and 
whitish-brown in colour. It is only good for indoor work, as it decays 
rapidly when exposed to the air or placed in the ground. The But-But 
is found in Victoria in Gippsland and parts of the north-east. 
^De.=crii>tiou and illustration (Fig. 8) taken from Baker and Smith's 
Research on the Eucalypts.) 



Victorian Eticalypts. 



25 




Fig. 8. — ^The But-But (Eucalyptus Bridgesiana, R. T. Baker). 
[From E. T. Baker and H. 6. Smith, " Research on the Eucalyptus, &o."] 



vg The lloiicii Flora of Vicli 



The A.pple Box (h'iirii///pl m St>i<irti<iiia). 

Fig. 9. 

A medium sized tree, with widely spreading main branches, rarelj 
attaining to 100 feet in height. It grows on rather sandy, and often in 
moist, tracts of country, on low ridges, and in grass tree country. It 
occurs in large numbers in the scrub country of the Grampians in com- 
l>any with Messmaitei, Stringybark, and Manna, Gum, is of a spreading 
habit, with the branchlets slender and drooping. The wrinkled brownish 
bark is rather scaly on the outside, but fibrous inside, somewhat re- 
sembling Stringybark, and continues, not only on the stem, but also on 
the main limbs. The trunk is generally twisted and gnarled rather 
than straight. 

The leaves are scattered, lance-shaped, slightly bent, dark green on 
both sides ; the veins are very thin and spreading, the marginal one 
removed from the edge; the clusters have usually more than three 
flowers ; the buds are rounded, slightly pointed. The fruits are half -egg 
or top shaped, very small, oftener three than four celled. 

As a somewhat smooth-barked variety of this species also occurs it is 
sometimes mistaken for E . viniinalis , the Manna Gum. The differences 
which separate the two are given by F. von Mueller in Eucalypts of 
AnstraUa ais follows : The Ap|)le Box (E. Stuartiana) is a more shady 
tree on account of its spreading habit, more numerous branches, and 
denser foliage. The leaves yield no manna, and have a more pleasant 
scent, reminding slightly of the odour of apples. The flowers are usually 
more than three in a cluster, which is the prevailing number in the case 
of the Manna Gum. Further, the seedling and sucker leaves of the two 
trees are quite distinct, as will be seen on reference to the illustrations, 
Figures 18 and 9. 

This tree has in addition various local names, such as Apple Tree, 
A.pple Giun, and, in the Grampians, Black Butt, on account of the 
blackeiiing of the, bark by periodical l:ush fires. It blossoms profusely 
from February to April, and is in bud for twelve to, fifteen months. It 
is a verj' useful tree, to the apiarist, as it flowers more or less every year 
and produce® pollen as well as nectar. Thei honey is amber in colour, 
not -veTY dense, and granulates more or less, but is very suitable winter 
food for bees. 



Victorian Eucahjpls. 



§7 




Fig_ 9, — The Apple Box {Eucalyptus Stuartiana, F. v. M.). 



2S 



The Iloiieij Flora of Yictona. 



II. Smooth Bark or Gum Group. 

The RiViER Red Gum {Eucalyptus ruxfrata). 

Fig. 10. 

This is one of thei best known and most valuable of our timber 
trees, and so characteristic in general ajopearance that it is easily dis- 
tinguished from other Eucalypts. It sometimes grows in company with 
Manna Gum, and there is some resemblance in the^ colour and texture 
of the bark of the stem of the latter to individual trees of the former, 
l3ut a comparison of the two will show a differencei m the shape of the 
buds and in their grouping. 

The Red Gum grows alo^ng river banks and watercourses or in 
alluvial valleys. It often attains a height of over 100 feet; under 
particularly favorable circumstances up tO' 200 feet. The trunk is 
proportionately stout, a diameter of 14 feet being on record. The bark 
IS smooth, ashen-grey, or whitish. The leaves are slightly sickle shaped, 
and of the' same colour on both sides. The flowers are usually in umbels 
(clusters) of 4 to 14, the buds are pointed, the fruit roundish. 

The wood, which is of a dark red dish -brown, is ve^ry durable, 
especially underground, and is extensively used for buildmg timber, 
railway sleepers, and many other purjjoses. 

The Red Giun tree blossoms every second year, usually the same year 
as Yellow Box, and concurrently with it, Deicember and January being 
the principal months. It is in bud foir eleven to twelve months. The 
bloom does not last long on a tree, and there is not much variation in 
time between different trees. The blooming period is therefore com- 
paratively short, except on the Upper Murr"ay, wliere it sometimes 
);lossoms from November to February. The. secretion of nectar is often 
very profuse- it is in fact one of the heaviest yielders. It also produces 
pollen in great quantities, and is therefore exceedingly valuable in 
Yellow Box country, as the pollen not only keeps the bees going in brood 
rearing, but also enables them to lay in a good store fo-r a time of 
scarcity, which not infrequently follows. 

The honey is of a clear golden colour, not quite so dense as that 
from Yellow Box, less aromatic, but of a milde-r and very aood flavour ■ 
it candies quickly, and sets very hard when from trees in the Grampians 
country, but is less inclined to granulate when from trees en the 
JMurray. 

The Red Gum is very subject to attack from gall insects, the flo-wer 
buds on nearly all the trees in a district sometimes being transformed 

^^'^^''^ "^'^^^'■' ^° ^^^=^ ''' '^•^''-' *^^t b--!^- ^--k off 

The blossom appears to have particular attraction to another insect 
pest, the Eutherglen Fly (Bug) which infests the bloom in millions Some 

ZZ:; t°;™V»^'^.--t- -d prevents the access of bees to the 
Dlossom, by the obnoxious odour. 



Victorian Eucalypis. 



2iJ 







Fig. 10. — Red Gum {EuKolyptua rostrata, Schleck). 



;i() 



Tlic Honri/ Flora of Victoria. 



The Forest Red Gum (Eiicali/ptus fereticornis). 
Fig. 11. 
' This, the Red Gum of East Gippslaud, also passes as Flooded Gum, 
Grev Gum, and even Bastard Box tree. It differs from the River Red 
Gum chiefly in its more upright habit, the narrower and longer leaves, 
and the rather variable' and inore olbong shape of the- buds occurring 
m individual trees. It is so- closely allied to the one previously 




Fig. 11.— The Forest Red Gui 



um (Eucalyptus tereUcornis, Smith). 

SaTw >?e'' ^'"1^ "'^''' ''" r«"'^^^^ "^ ^°"^^^ °f °"« ^P^««^' and 
Red Gum said concerning the timber and horaey value of the River 

Red Gum also applies here. The Forest Red Gum, however generally 
grows on drier ground and is a taller and straighter tree g^^^ally 



Victorian Eucali/pts. 



31 




Giant Forest Trees in Victoria. 
Fig. 12. — White Mountain Ash {Eucalyptus regnans, Narbethong, Vic/ 



Tlw Hone:/ Flora of Victoria. 



Yellow Gum (K ucnli/ptiis Iciu-o./f/Jon). 

Fig. 13. 

This tree is known b}' inauy different uames, and recognised as an 
ivonbark by few peoiple. In Soutli Australia and part of Victoria it is 
called Blue Gum, elsewhere White and Smooth Ironbark, Whit© Gum, 
Gum, and White Box. The botanical name, leucoxylon, signifies " white 
wood." It occurs in inanj^ parts of Victoria, near the Grampians, often 
in company with Red Gum, Yellow B:o'X, and Striiigybark. lu the 
Mallee it is often found near Black Box, but on drier ground elsewhere 
it IS also associated with Eed Iroufcark, Grey Box, and Long-leaf Box. 

Usually it is a moderate-sized tree, but attains occasionally a height 
of 120 feet. The bark is smooth, greyish- white, usually with a greenish- 
yellow tinge, more noticeable when s.een from a distance. The leaves 
are narrow, slightly sickle shaped, greyish, or dull-green on both sides, 
the marginal vein distinctly removed "from the edge of the leaf. The 
flowers, usually 3, sometimes 4 to 5, rarely 6 to 11 in a cluster, are 
white, pale-yellow, and rarely pink in colour; the. buds are- conical in 
shape.. The flowers and fruits are sometimes considerably larger than 
those shown in the illustration (Fig. 13), but occasionally even smaller. 
The wood is pale to reddish-brown, of great hardness, durability, and 
strength. It is used for railway sleepers, poles, shafts, slabs, cogs, &c. 

This tree is a fairly regular bloomer and heavy yielder of nectar, 
but no pollen isi gathered from it by bee®. It blossoms, generally 
speaking, during the winter months; near the Grampians it com- 
mences m JMay and June, ends in December ; in drier and gold-bearing 
couutiy it continues from April till November. In the. Mallee it 
flowers in September, October, and November. The buds appear from 
SIX to ten months before. It blossoms more or les.s every ye.ar but 
heavier every alternate, season. A peculiar feature: of this tree is' that 
sometimes it secretes nectar which the bees will not colleet, altho-ugh 
honey-eatmg birds freely avail themselves of it.. Till quite recently it 
ws assumed that, owing to the humidity and low temperature o.f the 

t'o'Xrbees " ''°°"""^'' '^^- "^^*"^- "^^ *°° '^"^ -d --t«-y 



seasons 



Some later observations proved that the same neglect occurred some 
isons to the nec.tar of the Eed Ironbark when it blossomed during dry 
|u iin weather (February), and an excess of moisture was quite mfkely 
In all the instances, however, both in summer and wini-ev +1.1 ™^^^^^y- 
entire absence of pollen, and' it is ,u^iZM:^t:Z^^'Z:^X 
!?S:d tm^E;Xt:;tar'^^' --'' ''- nectar^nl^Se^: 

Yellow Box hcne^- ^^iS^.^^'^:^' ^^^^^ "^ A-o-" ^^^^n 



Y id or id II E It ca iijpt'<. 



38 




Fig. 13.— Yellow Gum or White Ironbark (Eucalyptus Icuco.ri/lon, F. v. M.). 



1977.— 2 



34: Tlie Honey Flora of Victoria. 



The Sugar Grii (EnrahiptiiR rhidoriil i/.r . Syii. E. cori/iioraI//r). 

Fig. 14. 

This tree is a native of South Australia, and the lower Wimmera, 
in Victoria, it reaches a height of 120 feet, the trunk attaining a final 
diameter of 5 or even 6 feet. The l^ark is smooth; the wood durable 
and used for fence posts, railway sleepers, and other purposes. 

The leaves are scattered on the branchlets broad-lance or long-lance 
shaped, narrowing only very gradually towards the point; there is an 
oily lustre on bo"th sides of the leaf, but the underside is somev^hat 
paler. The: veins ar& numerous, moderately spreading, th« marginal 
vein removed from the edge of the leaf. The clusters of flowers are 
on the side of the branchlets, or at the shoulders, but frequently below 
the leaves on round stalks carrying from four to sixteen flowers. The 
buds are bell-shaped cylindric, with a blunt or slightly pointed lid; 
the fruit is urn-shaped, streaked lengthways, and three-celled. 

Thfii Sugar Gum is now extensively planted in parks and public 
gardens, being much more suitable for this purpose in dry warm 
localities than the Blue Gum, which under these conditions dies back 
after it has attained a certain age. 

As a nectar-jaelding trea the Sugar Gum is one of thei best, its value 
as such has so far not been sufficiently api^reciated by apiarists, because 
only in isolated instances is it found in sufficient numbers to produce 
that condition of the hives known as a honeyflow. The buds appear 
about thirteen months before the flowering period which occurs in 
January and February. It blossoms every year for a number of years 
and then misses one season. The blossom is very fragrant, secretes 
nectar freely, and lasts for a considerable time in comparison with 
many other eucalypts, attracting honey-eating birds, bees, and insects 
all day. The honey is of excellent flavour and aroma, of pale 
straw colour, and good density. As to pollen gathered by bees from 
this source the observations and opinions of apiarists differ, probably 
in consequence of local conditions. The^ information available so far 
indicates that bees soauetimes, but net always, collect pollen from the 
l-ilossom, this may bei due to ju'eferencei tO' jiollen from other sources when 
available. 

As a shade and shelter tree thei Sugar Gum is one of the best, parti- 
cularly for dry country. If pollarded when it becomes too tall and open 
]t will form a dense, bushy head ; when sown broadcast or planted closely 
it will make a good break-wind. 



Victor iini Eucahijils. 







Fig. 14.— The Sugar Gum {Eiicalyptiu cladocalyx. Syn. E. eorynocahjx). 



36 The IIdiii'i/ Flora of Victoria. 



The Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus). 
Fig. 15. 

The Blue Gum is on© of the l;est-kiiowu eucalypts, extensively i^lanted 
not alone in Australia, but also in America, jSTorth and South Africa, 
India, and Southern Europe. In a natural state it is found^ m valleys 
as well as on ridges and mountain slopes, chiefly in humid regions of the 
southern and eastern portions of Victoria, from the vicinity of Cape 
Otway to Wilson's Promontory, northward to the Murray and Tumut 
Rivers in the southern part of New South Wales, on the islands in Bass 
Straits, and in many other places, tut particularly the southern parts of 
Tasmania. 

Tlie Blue' Gum is a tall tree' of upright, growth att-ainiug under 
favorable conditions a height of over 200 feet and a stem diameter 
of 10 feet. The timber is of a rather pale colour, hard, heavy, strong, 
and durable ; it is more twisted than that of Messmate and Peppermint, 
but net so interlocked as that of Red Gum and of Yellow and other box 
trees. In house building, it is one of the best timbers for joists, studs, 
rafters, &e. It is very extensively used by carriage-builders and manu- 
facturers of implements, as well as for telegraph poles, jetty and bridge 
work. 

The leaves are scattered on the robust four-edged branchlets, lance or 
lance-sickle shaped, thick, and of equal colour and somewhat shining on 
both sides ; the veins of the leaves are moderately spreading and slightly 
prominent, the marginal vein removed from the edge. The flower buds, 
which are warty, tinged with a bluish white bloom ; they appear generally 
singly, less frequently two or three together at the shoulders of leaves. 
The lid of the bud is depressed hemispherically, and by its peculiar 
shape and warty appearance easily distinguishes the blue gum from 
other Victorian eucalypts. The fruit is large and three to five, rarely 
six, celled. 

The seedling plants and suckers are of a waxy powdery bluish 
whiteness, have sharply four-cornered stems, and opposite stalkless 
heart-shaped or oval heart-shaped leaves. 

The botanical name " globulus " refers toi the button like appearance 
of the caps of the blossoms. 

In its native habitat the Blue Gum is a tall tree, when planted in 
the open it grows bushy but is not suitable for dry and hot districts. 

In a state of nature it flowers dui-ing October, elsewhere generally in 
Winter. It is freely worked on by bees for both pollen and nectar, but 
the character of the honey is not yet definitely known, but it prohably 
lesenibles that of the succeeding and closely-allied species, the Spotted 
Blue Gum. 



Victorian Eucalypts. 



37 




Fig. 15. — The Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus, Labillardiere). 



:!s 



y/ic lloiici/ Flora of Vii-lnrnt. 



The Sfotteii Buk Gun (Eiicalyptus Maideni. F. ^'. M.). 

Fig. 16. 

A tree known a& Blue Gum and Spotted Gum in different localities, 
and sometimes erroneously taken for the true Blue Gum (E. globulus). 
It is always a tall, straight-growing tree attaining a height of up to 




Fig. 16.-The Spotted Blue Gum (E. Maideni, R von M.). (Adult foliage.) 
[From Proceedings, Linnean Society, X.S.\Y., 18S9.] 

ohalkv whr ^Tl' ^T\ "?\ ' '^'''^'''' ^P *° 4 f^^t with a smooth 
chalky white or bluish bark, hence its local name Blue Gum 

or heZ'^h^Zr^Tir ^*^^y l^^g^' f^°^ted or even chalky white, round 
or heart-shaped, stalk less, and stem clasping on sharply angular branch- 

teniatVanT't' ,t l'' ""tf' '°''^^' *^^ ™*^^ leavL'gralually become 
alternate and stalked, oblong and lance-shaped, often very narrow 



Victoria n E iica h/pts. 



39 



lance-shaped and more or less curved, attaining in the mature state 
a length of 12 inches or more, and resembling much the leaves of the 
Mountain Gum (E. (/oiiii)C(tl//.i)^ somettmes found m the same district, 
but not quit© so lustrous on the upper side; the veins are distinct, the 
marginal one removed from the edge. The' flowers are few, stalkless, at 
the shoulders of leaves on a much flattened cluster stalk. The flower 




Fig. 17.— The Spotted Blue Gum (.E. Maideni, F. v. M.). (Juvenile foliage.) 
[From Proceedings, Linnean Society, N.S.W., 1889.] 

cup is angular or flattened, the lid of the bud much constricted aud 
warty. 

Fruit, i inch in diameter, thus much smaller than that of the real 
Blue Gum (E. globulu.i) top shaped to somewhat half-round. 

The Spotted Blue Gum in general appearance resembles the Blue 
Gum (E. globulus) and the Mountain Gum {E . goniocalyix). From the 



40 Tlif Ndiici/ Ficra of Viclai-id. 



latter, with which it grows in company on the mountain slopes, it is 
often 'not readily distinguished, trunks and foliage of the two trees hav- 
ing much the same appearance. They differ, however, in their fruits 
and sucker leaves, so that there is little difficulty in distinguishing them. 
They also differ in their timber, while that of the Mountain Gum (E 
f/oinor/ili/.r) is of a dirty brown colour that of the Spotted Blue Gum 
is of a yellow tint. Though not much used, except occasionally foi 
wheelwright's work, it is nevertheless a gocd dui'able timber. Thei 
hcney is cf a clear golden colour, the secretion cf nectar being generally 
profuse. 



The Manna Gum (Kiicah/pfiis vhtiiiialk). 

Fig. 18. 

This Eucalypt, which is also known as White Gum and Eibbony 
Gum, is widely distributed over Victoria, but except on alluvial flats it 
does not appear to occur anywhere in large numbers together, but rather 
scatt-ered, or interspersed, between other trees, such as Reid Gum, 
btringybark, Mesematei, Blue Gum, and Siwampi Gum (E . ovato). 

In open country it is not a tall tree, hut when found in close forest 
often attains great height and stem diameter. There is great 
variation in the appearance of thei trunk of this tree in different 
localities, and sometimes even between individual trees growing 
side by side ; a rough, hard bark generally covers the base of the stem, 
while the upper portion is n.snally smooth, and white in colour. During 
the change of seasons the smooth portion of the hark becomes detached 
from the trunk in long strips, hence the name Ribbony Gum. In some 
specimens, however, the rough scaly bark persists to, or even partly, on 
the branches, while in others almost the whole of the trunk and branches 
are smooth and clean. 

The leaves are long, lance-shaped, slightly curved, of the same colour 
on both sides, the veins rather faint, spreading feather-like, the marginal 
vein somewhat removed from the edge of the leaf. The clusters are 
generally, but not necessarily, three flowered, with the buds, flowers, or 
fruits in line. The buda are oval, more or less pointed, the fruits half- 
egg shape, with three, four, or, rarely, five cells. 

The wood, which is from pale to brown in colour, makes good fire 
wood, and is fairly durable when cut and seasoned, 'but the standinf 
trees are apt to rot at the centre. "When found at high elevations it 
yields a useful building timber. 

This tree is well known on account of the manna it produces, usually 
durmg midsummer; it is, however, at times, difiicult to distinguish it 
from several others, such as Swamp Gum (E. o^vata) and Apple Box (E. 
Stvartmna), both of which it somewhat resembles. Refere-ncei to the 
illustrations. Figures 18 and 9 will, however, show that the sucker leaves 
of each are quite distinct, for while those of E. viinhialk are narrow 
lance-shaped, with a roundish base, the sucker leaves of E. Sttiarflruia 
are roundish, and of E. ova fa egg-shaped. 

The Manna Gum is somewhat irregular in its habits of flowering 
and the length of time it is in bud. Two generations of the latter may 
often be seen on the same branches of a tree, one which will blossom 
withm a few months, and the other which may not do so for eighteen. 
The flowering most frequently occurs after that of Red Gum, but may 



Vicloriiia E Ileal !i pis. 



41 



ocenr almost any iiionlli of flu' yrar. As this trcr (lues luit, as a rule, grow 
in veTy large luunlers, exoeipt en alluvial flats, in any oiiti locality, it 
does not produce large and distinct yields of honey, but, owing toi its 
Howering occasionally when other bee forage is scarce, and producing 
pollen as weJl as nectar, it is a very useful tree to the beekeep'eii'. 

The honey has a distinct sweetness of its own ; is clear amber in 
colour, not very dense, and candies rather readily. 




Fig. 18. — The Manna Gum (Eucalyptus rimiiiali«, Ijaliillaiclieie). . 

Theire is perhaps no other species of Eucalypt which varies so much 
in general appearance in different surroundings, for while in some dis- 
tricts the Manna Gum is a tall, straight, stately tree, with upper trunk 
clean and smooth, in other localities, particnlarly in dry country, it is 
scmetimes quite stunted, with drooping branches, and covered with a 
rough bark from the ground to the smaller limbs. 



42 Tlic Hoiicii Flora of Yulnna. 



The Candle Bark Gum {Eucalyptus ruhida, Deane and Maiden). 

Fig. 19. 

This tree is also known as Flooded Gum, Bastard White Gum, Rib- 
bony Gum, and Drooping Gum. The name Candle Bark is in reference 
to the smootii and sometimes frosted or chalky bark of the trunk. 

The bark is perfectly smootli for the most part, the outer layers 
falling off in ribbons. It frequently shows reddish or plum-coloured 
patches, lience the specific name, " rubida." This colouration, which 
IS generally most conspicuous at the end of summer, is, at times, beauti- 
ful when viewed from a distance, ranging from pale salmon colour to 
bright crimson and purple. 

Ill general appearanoe, adult leaves and fruits, this tree clossly 
resembles the Manna Gum (E. vnitiiialis), in the companj' of which it is 
often found. The Manna Gum, however, does not show the colouration 
of the bark of the Candle Bark Gum, and the latter has a smocth clean 
trunk and round to oblong sucker leaves of lighter green than the lance- 
shaped sucker leaves cf the Manna Gum. 

The mature leaves are dull green on both sides, narrow, lance-shaped, 
and of thickish texture. The veins of the leaf roughly transverse, the 
marginal vein close to the edge. They are often frosted with a whitish 
bloom. Sucker leaves from nearly round to oblong blunt ended, they 
are opposite, often stem-clasping, and even sometimes opposite leaves 
more or less joined round the stem. The buds are egg-shaped, in threes, 
arranged in the shape of a cross, as in the Manna Gum (E. vmnimlu) 
on short stalklets. Lid of the bud nearly half round when mature, 
hardly pointed. The fruit is top-shaped, spreading at the nicuth, some- 
times nearly half round, shining cr frosted, thrse or four celled. The 
timber is red when fresh, tut dries pale; it is of little use. 

The Candle Bark Gum blossoms in most localities in January and 
February, usually a little before the Manna Gum, when the two occur 
m the same locality. Like the Manna Gum, it is in bud from twelve 
to fifteen months, two generations of buds being therefore in sn^ht just 
before it blooms. It yields pollen as well as nectar, and the hmiev, so 
far as is known, is identical with that of Manna Gum. 



V trior ian Eacalyjjts. 



4:J 




Fig. 19. — ^The Candle Bark Gum {Eucalyptus ruhida, Deane and JIaiden). 
[From Proce:?din^s of the l-innean Society, X.S.W., 1899.] 



44 



The Jloneii Floru of Viclnria. 



The Guxly Gum (Eiiaili/pfiis Smithii, R, T. Baker). 

Fig. 20. 

A ribbony barked tree of considerable size. It has smooth limbs, 
and most of the butt is smooth. It is closely allied to the Manna Gum 
{E. viminalix), qiiite identical with the latter in adult as well as in 
sucker leaves, but while the flower buds of the Manna Gum always occur 




{^clp 



Fig. 20.— The Gully Gum (E. Smithii. R. T. Baker). 
[From E. T. Baker and H. G. Smith, '■ Research on the Eucalypts, AC ] 

in threes (or less) the clusters in the case of the Gully Gum usually con- 
am seven flowers while the rough bark sometimes continues further up 
be a1:"et"" '^" ^'''""' ^"°^' °' "^"°^^ '' ^^^ f— '^y ^e^ to 

f Jp 11™^'' ''-'^r g'"^''ied, hard, and difiicult to work. In Victoria 
the Gully Gum is found m Gippsland gullies. 



Victorian Eucalypts. 



43 



The White Brittle Gum {Eucalyplus maculosa, R, T. Baker). 

Fig. 21. 

A tree also known as Spotted Gum and Brittle Gum, rarely exceed- 
ing 60 feet in height, usually from 20 to 40 feet. The bark i& smooth 
right down to the ground. The sucker leaves are of thin texture, lance or 




Fig. 21.— The White Brittle Gum (E. maculosa, K. T. Baker). 
[From Proceedings, Linnean Society, N.S.W., 1899.] 

oval lance-shaped, 2 or 3 inches long, opposite or alternate with the 
marginal vein removed from the edge of the leaf. The adult leaves are 
lance-shaped or narrow lance-shaped, curved, not shining and of the 
same colour on both sides. The veins of the leaves are only faintly 



Thi' Ho/U'i/ Flani of ^'iclol■nl. 



maiked or rather obscure. Some trees have the leaves quite rigid and 
erect. 

The clusters of from four to sixteen or even twenty flowers are at 
leaf shoulders, buds stalkless or on very short stalks, top-shaped, lid 
blunt and of equal length to the lower part of the bud. Fruit half- 
round to top-shaped with valve flaps projecting in ripe fruit. 

The timber is straight grained and easy to work, but seasons badly, 
and is of little value on account of the presence of Gum veins. 

The White Brittle Gum grows in poor, open forest ground to a maxi- 
mum height of 60 feet with a stem diameter of 1 to 3 feet, and a 
rather dense head. The bark is different shades of grey or bluish 
yellow with spots like those of the true Spotted Gum fE. macvlata). 



The SwAjrr (jvm (Eucalyptus orata. Syn. E. pahidosa). 

Fig. 22. 

The Swamp Gum, Cider Eucalypt, White Gum, grows usually on 
alluvial flats, particularly in swampy places. It is generally not a tall 
tree, often of crooked growth, and sometimes dwarfed. In general 
appearance of the trunk and in the bark it resembles the Manna Gum to 
a certain degree. The bark is often rough, dark or greyish brown at the 
butt, and sometimes so up to the main limbs ; in other cases, smooth 
on the stem and the branches, and greyish white in colour. The branches 
are very spreading. The wood is fairly hard, but as it is rarely straight 
not much used except for fuel. It makes excellent charcoal. The leaves 
generally have a twist, are lance-shaped, rather pointed at the basei, and 
of equal deep' green on both sides, the veins rather distant, moderately 
spreading, and the marginal vein distinctly removed from thei edge of the 
leaf. The sucker and seedling leaves are ova.l. The umbels occur singly 
at thei shoulders of leia.vesi, or laterally from thei branohlets, and carry 
from threei to ten flowers ; thei buds are egg-shaped, short pointed, the 
fruit top-shaped, three, four, or, rarely, five celled. 

This tree flowers, usually not very profusely, in autumn ; nothing 
definite is known yet as to the length of time it is in bud. Pollen is 
gathered from the blossom by bees. The honey is clear amber in 
colour, not dense, candies, and closely resembles that of Manna Gum. 
The Swamp Gum is distinguished from the Manna Gum by the broader 
and shorter leaves, their darker green, and more distant veins, the 
different grouping of the flowers, and the oval sucker and seedling leaves, 
as contrasted with the narrow lanee-shaped ones of the Manna Gum. 



Victorian Eucalypls. 



47 



\v 






\Wf r\ 



Ml >, 



It' 



'-#// I' \ ( / ' 



I i 



V, 

I 



\. 






. yl 



im 



/ 



iy 






•\ 



'^ (, ^ 






( i^.- 



// ^..ap- -w -tgi^ -'vig' f ^^^ \ 




7 






Fig. 22. — The Swamp Gum [Euccdyptus ovata. Syn. E. pdludosa). 



.;,s The ILoiU'ij Flora of Victorid. 



The Cider Gum {Eucali/ptus Gunnii, Hook, F.) 

A shrub or sinall tree found iii Victoria only at high elevations in the 
north-eastern part, attaimng a diameter of VA inches, and sometimes a 
lieight of 30 feet. i- i . .u- 

The specific name Eucalyptus Gunnii is now only applied to this 
siiecies but formerly included the Swamp Gum (E . ovata), the Sallow 
Gum (E. annphorn), and the Dwarf Gum (E . KUsomana), all of which 
are now recognised as distinct species, , . „ 

The bark of the Cider Gum is smooth. A number of stems spring 
from a broad expanded root base, a feature which is characteristic of 
this species. 

The leaves are frosted, and variable in size and shape, stem-clasping, 
stalkless, heart-shaped, round, egg, or egg lance-shaped, and occur oppo- 
site or alternate on the rounded branchlets. The lateral veins of the 
leaves are oblique spreading, the marginal vein well removed from the 
edge of the leaf. Flowers at shoulders of leaves in short tufts, in threes 
on a short stalk or stalkless, buds bell-shaped, with short pointed lid, 
which overlaps the lower part of the bud. The fruit is half-round to 
evhnder-shaped, with a thickened rim. 

A pale-coloured wood. This tree is called Cider Gum on account of a 
cider-like beverage having been made from the sap. 

The Dwarf Gum (Eiicnli/ptiis Eitsoniana, Luehmann and Maiden). 

A dwarf tree. It usually does not grow higher than 4 to 5 feet, but 
at Foster it is found 18 to 20 feet in height. Bark smooth in texture, 
and ashy grey in colour, lighter in the higher branches. 

Juvenile foliage oblong to broadly lance-shaped, with very short 
stalk, or stalkless leaves, rounded at the end, or terminating in a blunt 
point, even-sided, and of leathery texture. Veins well marked, spread- 
ing marginal vein a considerable distance from the edge of the leaf. 

Mature Foliane. — When in the flowering state, this tree has some- 
times a few oblong lance-shaped leaves, but they vary in all degrees of 
width up to 4 inches long by i-inch wide. Fully developed leaves have 
the marginal vein close to the edge, and are on stalks up to 1-in. lOng. 
Buds with conical lid, the flower cup on a broad (strap-shaped) stalk. 
Flowers in a head of usually seven, but may be as few as three. Fruit 
half-round, or more or less conical through mutual pressure, smooth or 
slightly angled, three, four, or five celled. 

The Dwarf Gum grows in poor, boggy country in the low-lying tracts, 
but also occurs in the drier hills at Foster. The oil of this species is 
valuable. 

The Neglected Gum {Encali/jffiix Liviiif/s/i'iiia^ Maiden). 
A dwarf tree like the one previously described, and closely allied to 
it. It differs, however, from the Dwarf Gum, having broader leaves, 
smaller, and less angular buds and fruits. It grows in swampy places 
near the Great Dividing Range, at Oineo. 

The Sallow Gum {Eucalyptus camphora, R. T. Baker). 

Fig. 23. 

A small tree, about 20 to 40 feet in height, with a black, shedding 

bark. Mature leaves, egg-shaped long, abruptly pointed, under 4 

inches long, or lance-shaped, pointed, and 6 inches long, somewhat 

leathery and frosted. The veins are distinct, particularly m young 



1 ictonan Eiicali/pls. 



4!) 



leaves, the marginal vein away from the edge. The sucker leaves are 
eg:g-shaped (2, 3, 4, Fig. 23), blunt, unda:- 6 inches long, and 31 inches 
wide, on angular stalks -i-inch long, leathery, and frosted. The "clusters 
ot flowers are few, on flattened stalks at shoulders of leaves, bearino- five 
or six short-stalked, top-shaped, and pointed buds 




Fig. 23. — The Sallow Gum {Eucalyptus ramphom, R. T. Baker). 
[From R. T. Eaker and H, G. Smith, " Research on tlio Euoalypts. &c."l 

The Sallow Gum is usually found in company with the Black Sallee 
(/i. xtdhiJata) and the Swamp Gum {E . ovata). 

From the Black Sallee it is easily distinguished by its leaves, although 
otlierwise in appearance of growth, branches, bark, &c., the two resemble 
each other somewhat. Its branches, however, never have that yellow, 
green colour, which is so characteristic of the Black Sallee {E . stellulata), 
but are of an ashy grey or brownish grey colour, sometimes approaching 
to a sooty black. 



:>o 



Till' Ihiiii'ii Flora of Victiina. 



The Spotted Guim {Eucalyptus maculata. Hooker). 
Fig. 24. 

A liandsome tree, with a straight stem sometimes of a length of 
90 feet up to the branches, and a diameter up to 3 feet. 
The bark is smooth, somewhat shining, whitish or sometimes 
reddish-grey, mottled by bluish-white or brown-reddish spots, hence the 
vernacular as well as the botanical name. Leaves scattered on slightly 
angular branchlets, elongated or narrow lance-shaped, often somewhat 
sickle-shaped, seldom more oval, of equal green on either side, more or 
less shining, sometimes but slightly so; their lateral veins crowded, 
spreading and rather prominent, the marginal vein close to the edge 
of the leaf. Flowers in usually short tufts, two or three together or 
some solitary, rarely four or more, two umbels occasionally arising 
from one point appearing like one, with six or seven flowers; the some- 
what angular stalklets are shorter than the flower cup, the tube of which 
is almost half egg-shaped or slightly bell-shaped; the lid of the bud is 
double, the outer one half-round and pointed, the inner one depressed 
semiglobular, almost or quite blunt, transparent and shining; fruits 
globular or oval urn-shaped, with three, rarely two or four, deeply 
enclosed valves. The fruits vary from ^ to f of an inch in length, 
slightly rough or faintly wrinkled. 

The timber is used in shipbuilding, wheelwright work, frame work, 
and street paving. 

The true Spotted Gum is a New South Wales treei only exteuding 
slightly into Victoria across the eastern border. No information as to 
its floweruig habits, nectar, and pollen production is yet available. 



Victorian .Ei(caJi/pl.s. 



51 




mUf H Jft 






"•"as*** 



:f 



(\l; *^ " :?V 



/ 



"W 



^&** ) ''' 




Fig. 24. — The Spotted Gum {Ein-ah/pl ux marnlata, Hooker). 



52 Tlic JIoiici/ Flard. ol 1 iclonu. 



The Shining Gum (Einwili/pfiia m/u/s^ Maiden). 

A very large tree, growing to a height of 200 to 300 feet, with a 
stem diameter from 2 to 17 feet. It is closely related to the Mountain 
Gum (E. goniocalyx) (Fig. 25) of which till lately it was considered a 
variety, but is now classed as a distinct species. It is known by local 
names, such as White Gum, Silver Top, and Silver Top Gum in refer- 
ence to the smooth and shining bark of the upper part of the trunk. 

The bark is of the White Gum kind, hanging in strips, and more 
or less rough at the butt, the upper portion of the trunk smooth and 
even shining. 

The timber is straight in the grain, flesh-coloured when fresh, but 
drying very white. 

The leaves in the mature state of the tree are lance-shaped, slightlv 
curved, nearly even-sided, equally green on l)Oth sides, somewhat 
shining and thickish, the veins spreading, the marginal vein distant 
from the edge of the leaf. Mature leaves may attain a length of over 
12 inches, and a width of 3 inches, but usually they are much smaller; 
juvenile leaves, bluntly lance-shaped, or heart-shaped and stem-clasping, 
equally green on both sides and somewhat frosted ; branchlets square and 
even-winged (as in Blue Gum seedlings). 

The buds are usually pale-brown, curved and angled, up to seven in 
a head, six stalkless buds surrounding a central one on a common stalk 
\ inch long ; lid of bud pointed and longer than the flower cup. 

Fruits shining, up to seven in a cluster, egg-shaped, slightly angled. 

The Shining Gum is found in Victoria near Mount Baw Baw and 
similar localities. 

As already stated, the Shining Gum is closely related to the Moun- 
tain Gum {Eucalyptus goniocalyx). The differences which separate 
the two species are — 

1. The Shining Gum attains a size never attainr^d \ij the Mountain 
Gum. 

3. The timber of the former species appears to be fuller in the 
grain, less interlocked and less durable than that of the Moimtain 
Gum. 

3. The young branchlets of the Mountain Gum {E. goniocalyx) do 
not ap]iear to be winged at any time, as in the species here described. 

4. The fruits of the Shining Gum (F. nitens) are much smaller 
and shinier than those of the Mountain Gum {E . gomoc(ili/r). 

In regard to nectar and pollen production no distinct and separaif 
information is available, as the Shining Gum has so far not been 
distinguished as a distinct species by apiarists. 



Grey Gum or Mountain Gum (Eucali/ptns goniocaJi/x). 
Fig. 25. 

_ As mentioned above, the botanical name, E. goniocalyx, is now ap- 
plied to the Mountain Gum only, which also passes under the vernacular 
names of Mountain Ash, Grey Gum, White Gum, Spotted Gum, and 



Victorian Eiicalijiiis. 



Bastard Blue Gum. As already indicated, it is almost identical with 
the Long-leaved Box in leaf, flower, and fruit, but, as distinguished from 
the latter, it is a tall, straight tree, occasionally exceeding 200 feet in 
height and attaining a stem diameter up to 6 feet; the wood is hard 
and tough, varies in colour from a pale yellowish to a brownish colour; 
it is very durable, and lasts well underground ; it is used by wheel- 




Fig. 25. — ^The Mountain Gum {Eucalyptus gonioc.alyx, F. v. M.). 



Wrights and in boat building, for railway sleepers, planks, piles, and 
general building purposes. 

It flowers ©very second year from March to July ; the honey is amber 
in colour and of fair quality. 



The lloiu'ii Flora of Vichjini. 



White Sallee {K ncnli/pt iix roriacca. Syn. A'. j,(Vi<"ip'o>(i). 

Fig. 26. 

A medium-sized tree, but sometimes attaining a height of 100 feet; 
it is known by several other vernacular names such as White Gum, 
Willow Gum, White Sallee, distinguishing it fro-m Black Sallee (A', stellu- 
/o/ti), Tumble Down Gum by reason of its aspect, Glassy Gum on account 
of the glassy appearance of the upper bark ; while in Tasmania, on ac- 
count of its scrambling nature, it is called Weeping Gum. 

In Victoria it is found in the southern districts on the lowest hills 
and the highest mountains. The timber is pale-coloured, full of guin 
veins, and warps a good deal; the limbs bend and twist without break- 
ing; its chief local uses are for fuel and fencing posts, as it is very 
durable. The bark is distinctly of the White Gum type, the trunks of 
the trees being mostly quite clean down to the ground. 

The leaves are scattered on the branchlets, leathery, yet often suc- 
culent, long lance, but sometimes somewhat sickle shaped, or merging 
into the oval form. They are of equal colour and shining on both sides, 
the veins very oblique, almost parallel to the mid-rib. The (lower 
clusters, which occur mostly singly at the shoulders of leaves, but some- 
times form a spray, carry from few to many flowers ; the buds are 
round-ended, more or less pointed; the fruits are half-round to cup- 
shaped, three, more rarely four or five celled. 

This is a very profusely flowering eucalypt, yielding honey of the 
White Gum type, clear, transparent, of a golden colour, but not of 
high density. As in other species it varies somewhat in colour and 
character, according to soil, climate and elevation. Pollen is gathered 
by the bees from the flowers, as from all other trees known as White 
Gums with the exception of E. leucoxylon (The Yellow Gum), which 
passes as a White Gum in some localities. As with most of the White 
Gums, the time of flowering is very variable, and the length of time the 
Wliite Sallee is in bud lias not so far been ascertained. 



The Snow Gum (Eiicfil>/2)tux roriacen. Var. nljjinn). 

This is a variety of the White Sallee, frequently high mountain 
localities. It has short and nearly straight leaves, and is but a tall 
slirub or small tree, with more or less whitish bloom on the foliage. 

The trees of this species at the highest elevations are remarkable for 
tlieir bare stems, surmounted with a dome or flatfish top of leaves The 
bare stems are doubtless the consequence of winds, the leaves being 
cnncentrated on t^op as a thin layer, and offering a minimum resistance 
to the wind. A fruiting twig of this varietv is shown m the right top 
earner of the illustration (Fig. 26). " 



Victorian Encalypts. 




Fig. 26. — White Sallee {Eticdlypliis coriacea. Syn. E. paiiciflora, A. Cunn.). 



.')(i I'liv Hiiiu'y Florii of Viclona. 



The Black Sallee (Eucalyptus steUtilata). 
Fig. 27. 

A tree attaining a height of 50 to 100 feet, but the diameter rarely 
exceeding 2 to 3 feet; at high elevations it is of a scrubby growth, and 
IS known as Black Sallee, this word being a corruption of sallow or 
willow. It is also called " Black Gum " owing to the rough hard dark 
bark on the butt, and "Green Gum" ou account of the greenish or 
bronze coloured bark on the upper portion of the stem. 

The timber is pale coloured, rarely free from gum veins and of 
little value except for fuel. This is a gum, or smooth-barked 
eucalypt; it has, however, more or less rough bark towards the butt 
which in old trees is hard, rough and black ; the upper part of the 
trunk IS, as already mentioned, greenish, bluish, or white. 

The leaves are scattered, on rather short stalks, oval lance to narrow 
lance shaped shmmg, and of equal colour on both s.ides, the veins 
almost lengthways of the leaf. The flowers are very small, almost 
s alkless very numerous, six to fifteen arranged star-like m the cluster 
(hence the botanical name E. stdlulata). The buds rather long and 
threeilled' '" '"^ '"'"' ^^^^'^^^^^ or cup-shaped, and mostly 

In Victoria the Black Sallee is found on the Mitta Mitta and Ovens 
Rivers, and the Dargo High Plains. There is a narrow-leaved variev 
STowing at higher elevations, which is of a shrubby habit 

eultui'^."^"™""" '' ^'' """'"^'^- "^ ^° *^^^ ^^1^^ °f tMs tree to bee- 



Vidorian EucaJi/pts. 



57 




Fig. 27.— Black Sallee {Eucalyptus sk-UiiInIa, Sieb.). 



;,,s TIk; Tfoiiei/ Flora of Victoria. 



The Sckibbly Gum (EiicaJi/pPus hcemastomn, Smith). 
Fig. 23. 

Finally, a tall tree, with frequently quite smooth bark, or less usually 
persistent ou the stem, hut on the branches smooth to a great extent; it 
occurs, however, also occasioually with bark persisting up to the last 
branches, and would then come under the category of strmgybarks, 
while in the ordinary form, with persistent bark on the trunk and smooth 
branches, it is apt, when judged by general appearance, to be mistaken 
for Blackbutt {E . pilularis), and passes under the latter and several 
other misleading local names. 

The leaves are scattered on the branchlets, lance-sickle shaped, occa' 
sionally much narrower, but exceptionally also verging into a somewhat 
oval form, shining and of equal green on both sides, the veins running 
more with, than across, the leaf; the marginal vein somewhat removed 
from the edge. The umbels are mostly solitary, at shoulders of leaves, 
or lateral on branchlets or some in a short spray on angular and often 
somewhat compressed stalks, with from five to ten or rarely more 
flowers in each umbel. Tube of calyx (flower cup) broadly conical, 
about twice as long as the half-round depressed or slightly pointed small 
lid of the bud; the tube is not angular, and tapers into a somewhat 
long stalklet. Fruit half egg-shaped, with a rim of brownish-red 
colour, from which the species derives its systematic name, it is four, or 
less frequently, five-celled, the rim depressed or quite flat; valves very 
short. 

The wood is not of any great value, not being durable, but it 
furnishes fair fuel. In Victoria the. Soribbly Gum is found m the 
eastern part of the State. 

The. Scribbly Gum, formerly known as Brown Messmate, flowers 
every third year, and the honey is not first-class. 



Victorian Eucalypts. 



50 




Fig. 28. — The Scribbly Gum (Eucalyptus hn'-mastoma, Smith). 



,;,) TJir Iloveii Flora of Victoria. 



The e\NDAT- Gum (K imih/pt m divrrsifoJia. Syn. -E". mntahfolia, 

F. V. M.)- 

Fig. 29. 

A tall shrub, flowering, however, already at a height of .5 feet. In 
sandy desert country, as also in scrubby valleys or on arid ridges, re- 
stricted to regions near the coast, and occurring in Victoria in the 
Portland district. 

Leaves scattered on firm angular branchlets, thick, narrow or rarely 
broad-lance shaped, almost straight or somewhat curved, of equal colour 
and shining on both sides on moderate or short stalks; veins very faint, 
almost obliterated, marginal vein somewhat distant from the edge of 
the leaf. The specific name was devised by some resemblance of the 
leaves to those, of sandalwood. The clusters of flowers occur singly at 
shoulders of leaves, but later laterally, containing three to five, rarely 
six to eight flowers ; stalks of clusters scarcely or somewhat angular, the 
stalklets of buds and flowers extremely short or almost none ; tube of 
flower cup nearly half round and somewhat shorter than the half egg- 
shaped conical upper part of the bud ; fruits depressed globular, three to 
four, occasionally five, celled. The Sandal Gum re?embles the Brown 
Stringybark in the almost total absence of flower Ftalklets, but it does 
I'ot attain the fize of a large tree; the leaves are analler, more rigid, of a 
lighter green, less conspicuously veined, and not so unevensided. The 
flowers are generally less numerous on each stalk, and the fruit,; usually 
smaller. The Sandal Gum is a good oil yielder. 

As a source of nectar, it promises well, but, so far, it has only been 
observed for a short period. 



Victorian Eucah/pts. 



tjt 




Fig. 29.— The Sanlal Gum {Euoilyptus diversifolia. Syn. E. mntalifolia, F. v. M.) 



62 Till' JIniici/ Flora of Victoria. 



III. Stringybark Group. 

The Messmate (Kucnli/pfus ohliqua). 
Fig. 30. 

The Messanatei, in Soiith Australia, and Tasmania, cane,d Stringy- 
bark, i,Ls generally a, straight steinined treei of rapid growth attaining 
a maximum height of 300 feet in country with a good rainfall, usually 
found in the coaiipany of Stringybark (L\ macrcri-lii/iirha) arid Pepper- 
mint {E . A iistraliaiiu)^ but also occurring in a, stunted form on sandy 
heath ridges, 'with Apple Bo,x (A'. Stiiartiann.) and Brown jStringy- 
bark (E. luipifrllidd). 

The wood is pale to brownish yellow in colour, usually free in the 
grain and then used for splitting into posts and rails and to a lesser ex- 
tent into palings and shingles, it also supplies a large portion of the 
ordinary sawn hardwood for building purposes. 

The bark is very fibrous but rather soft and fragile, inside light 
brown, outside greyish or after fires black ; it ignites easily and the Mess- 
mate therefore carries bushfires along more than most other trees. The 
bark is to some extent used for roofing rough buildings, but is not so 
suitable for this purposes as tha,t O'f Stringyb,ark. 

The leaves are scattered sickle — or sickle — lance-sliaped, equally 
green and shining on both sides; their lateral veins not very spreading, 
but rather prominent, the marginal vein somewhat removed from the 
edge of the leaf. The leaves of young saplings are broad, somewhat 
heart-shaped. 

The clusters (umbels) contain from three to twenty flowers, and 
grow from the shoulders of leaves or sideways from the branchlets. The 
stalks of the umbels are slender and rather long, the flower buds long, 
tapering towards the stalk, and have a half-round or slightly pointed 
top. The fruit is cup-shaped with three to five cells (compartments). 

The buds appear from nine to eleven months before blossoming, 
which takes place generally in February. The honey is one of the 
darkest, particularly so in wet locations, reminding somewhat of 
molasses. Pollen is gathered by the bees from tlie blossom, and as the 
Messmate blooms late m the season it may be found useful in buildin<^ 
up colonies for autumn and supplying them with winter stores " 



Victorian Eucalypts 




Fig. 30. — The Messmate (Eucalyptus obliqua, L'Herit). 



(54 The Jlnncij Flora of Victoria. 



The Red .Stringybaek (E ucoli/pfiis innrKjrrhynrha). 

Fig. 31. 

The common Stringybark tre-e of Victoria, widely distributed over 
the State, found generally on comparatively sterile ridges and ranges. 
It does not attain the height of Messmate {E . obliqua), nor does it 
ascend generally to the high elevations at which the latter is found. 
Both trees, however, frequently occur intermingled; it generally grows 
in the company of Ked Box, Grey Box, Yellow Box, and Long-leaf 
Box in the drier districts, and with Manna Gum and JSTarrow^-leaf 
Pep'pei-mint (E . Aiistraliaiia) in ether situations. 

The wood is hard, mostly of a deep reddi.sh browm coloration-, but 
also occurring pale in colour ; it is usually durable, free in grain, and 
therefore suitable for palings, shingles, and fence rails; it is also sawn 
into commercial timber, and furnishes a fair fuel. The bark is thick, 
fibrous, and tough, from light to dark-grey in colour on the outside, 
reddish-brown inside ; the inner layers are so tough as to be available 
for rough cordage. 

The leaves are scattered on the branchlets, lance-shaped, equally 
green on both sides, the veins moderately spreading, the marginal one 
distinctly removed from the edge. The umbels or clusters of from 
four to nine flowers occur mostly singly; the buds sharply pointed, 
tapering sharply towards the point as well as the stalk; the fruit is 
round, three and less frequently four celled. 

Like the other Stringybarks, it is not a very reliable tree as a 
honey-producer, but yields better in Gippsland and moist localities 
generally than in the drier parts of the State. The honey is clear, 
but rather high-coloured, but of good flavour, and when thoroughly 
ripe, of fair density; it candies rather readily, but not solidly, and 
should always be heated to 160 deg. Fahr. before being marketed, other- 
wise a froth will form on top of the honey after it has been standing 
for some time. Pollen is gathered from the blossom; the normal flower- 
ing time is February, and the buds appear from fifteen to eighteen 
months previously. 

The Red Stringybark is more subject toi periodical ravages by the 
caterpillar of the cup moth than any other Eucalypt. Square miles 
of forest are sometimes devastated by these pests, the value of the trees 
to the beekeeper being destroyed for several years. The trees themselves 
are much injured. 



VicloriiDi Eacahj jiis. 



63 




Fig. 31.— The Red Stringybark {Eucalyptus macroniiyncha, F. v. M.). 



1977.— 3 



06 



The Hoiiri/ Flora of Vicloioa. 



The Brown Stringybakk (Eiird/i/pfux r<ipitrUatii). 

Fig. 32. 

This tree attains a niasimum height of 200 feet, but, as a rule, is 
not so tall. It is widely distributed over Victoria, appearing m the 
Eastern and moister half as a tall tree, but near the Grampians and 
the South Australian border in a dwarf state. It furnishes a good 
timbeo- for all purposes for which Stringybark is used. 

The umbels are in sprays at end of branchlets, hence the botanical 
nam© capitcUafa (head flowering), or single lateral, or at shoulders of 
leaves bearing from four to fifteen flowers, not of large size. The buds 
taper only slightly towards the stalk, while the top is rounded or blunt- 
pointed. The fruit is almost round with the points of the crown well 
prcjtcting and of a dark-brown colour when the fruit is dry. 

The bark in appearance resembles that of Messmate, but is harsher 
and more stringy, and reaches far up into the branches, the branchlets 
alone being smooth. 

The leaves are lance-shaped, or lance slightly sickle-shaped, rather 
thick, dark green, usually more shining on the upper than the lower 
side ; the lateral veins moderately spreading, the marginal vein dis- 
tinctly removed from the edge. 

The buds appear fifteen to eighteen months before flowering, which 
occurs two years in succession, in February and March, so that for some 
time there are two generations in sight. This is also a characteristic 
of the Red Stringybark {E. macrorrhyncha) , Maiiua Gum (E. viminalis) 
and Long-leaf Box (E. eJmophora). As a nectar-producing tree it is 
not very reliable, being like the Red Stringybark, somewhat irregular, 
failing altogether some years, particularly in dry districts. It is, how- 
ever, very useful as a pollen bearer. 

The honey is one of the darker ones, but fairly clear, of good den- 
sity and pleasant flavour, and preferred to other honey by people used 
to it. When heated it throws off a considerable amount of froth, and 
as it is inclined to candy it should always be heated to 160 deg. Fahr. 
before it is drawn into tins for market, otherwise a layer of froth will 
be found on top of the honey some time after it is tinned. 

The Eroiwn Stringybark differs from the Eed (E . maoorihyncha) 
chiefly in the smaller flowers, blunter or less pointed, and somewhat 
angular buds of the first-named, while the projecting valve flaps of 
the ripe fruit which are common to both separate them from other 
Striugj'bark trees. 



Victor tail Eucakjpts. 




Fig. 32. — The Brown Stringytark (Eucalypt-us capitelhta, Sm.). 



The Ilonei/ Flora of Victoria. 



Thk White Steingybark {E u ral y pt v s cinjcnionhs). 

Fig. 33. 

Tlie White or Gippslaud Strmgybark is a, trse with a straight stem 
attaining a height ot about 2U0 feet, occurring mostly in elevated poor 
groundsr but ako in sandy low lands from the Dandeuong Eanges and 
their vicinity to hilly and nioiinlainous places in Gippsland and to Two- 
fold Bay. 

The wood is pale coloured, splits well into shingles, palings, rails, 
and slabs, and is also sawn into building timber; it is more lasting than 
that of the Red and the Brown Stringybark, but is inferior for fuel. 

The bark is fibrous, vei-y tough, reddish-brown inside, and is the 
best kind for rough roofing, and on this account tliousands of straight 
valuable timber trees have been destroyed, one single sheet of bark 
being taken off the standing tree. 

The leaves are scattered on the branchlets, broad lance or slightly 
sickle-shaped, dark-green and shining on both sides, the veins somewhat 
faint, the marginal vein somewhat removed from the edge. The flowers 
four to twenty in single umbels at shoulders of leaves, or sometimes in a 
small spray ; buds conical, fruit cup-shaped, but without the projection 
of tlie valve^ flaps of thei Red and Brown Stringybark ripei fruit. 

The "White Stringybark blossoms in Autumn and Winter. Noth- 
ing definite is yet known as to the length of time it is in bud, and 
how often it flowers. It vields great quaiitities of pollen to' bee®. The 
honey is like, that of other* Stringybarks. and has the same character- 
istics as to frothing, but is paler, being of clear amber colo'ur, and 
good flavour. 



1 icUiniui J<J Ileal 1/ [lift. 



69 




Fig. 33.— The White Stringybark (Eucalyptus eiifjenioiih'',, Sieb.). 



Tlic Honci/ Flora of Vicioria. 



The Yellow Stringybark {Eucalyptus MueUeriana). 
Fig. 34. 

The Yellow Striiigybavk, so-called because thei bark is very yellow 
when freshly cut; the timber is also yellowish. The stem is straight, 
rather massive, with moderately spreading branches, and a fibrous dark- 
grey bark. The leaves of aged trees are lance-shaped, and more or 
less unequal sided, rather dark-green in colour, equally shining on both 
sides, and usually three to five times as long as broad. The seedlings 
have narrow lanoe-shaped opposed leaves. In young saplings the leaves 
are rather broad lance or egg lance-shaped. The stems of saplings and 
yo^mg trees arei somewhat smoother than those of ether StringybaAs . 

The clusters of flowers appear usually solitary; the buds are from 
three to twelve m the umbels, tapering towards the stalk, the lid (top) 
half egg-shaped, or half-round, smooth, and occasionally sliahtlv 



pointed. 



y Sligutly 



The fruit is almost half-round, four celled, less frequently 
three to five celled, indented with small pits, and usually erav-ereen in 
colour. •^ ^ ■' ^ 

In Victoria the Yellow Stringybark has an extensive ran^e m the 
southern part and eastern Gippslaud. It is a valuable splitting timber 
and exceedingly durable in contact with the ground. 

As to its value as a nectar and pollen yielder, the character of the 
Honey, time of flowering, no definite information is, so far available 
excepting that it is of little value to bee culture, and the writer hereby 
invites mfcrmaticn en this subject frcm beekeepers able to give such in 
regard to this tree, or any other Eucalypt on which the information is 
incomplete. 



Virloridii Ell call/ j)l ft. 



7J 




Fig 34.— The Yellow Stringybark {Eucalyptus Mudhriana, Howitt). 



Tliv IFoiu'i/ Flora of Vicldriit. 



The Ykktchtk ( E iicali/phis Con.'iideniana. Maiden). 

Fig. 35. 

A iiiediinn-sized tree, with a gvey tougli bark of the character well 
known ns " peppennint," very like that of the Peppermint Gum 
(A'. ]tijitril((. Sin.), Irat very different from that of the Silver Top 
{E. Sifhcriana. F. v. .M.), in the company of which it often grows. 
In Gippsland it seems more of a Stringybark, with rough bark (as in 
other locations) right to the tips of the branches. It grows most freely 
upon the rather jioor sandy and clay lands of the coastal country of 
Kastern Victoria, ascending also the coast ranges. 

Yertcluik is the a))origina] name of this tree, which is also known 
as Peppermint, Messmate, and White Mahogany. 

The leaves of mature trees are commonly broad lance-shaped, 
unevensided, and somewhat curved; up to 9 inches in length and nearly 
3 inches in width ; rather thick in texture. Colour equally green on 
both sides, dull or shiny, blue-green or bright sap-green. Veins of 
leaves strongly marked, spreading from the base, the marginal vein 
a consideral)le distance from the edge. Leaves mostly hanging straight 
down. 

Juvouile leaves (sucker and seedling leaves) narrow lance-shaped, 
opposite but soon becoming alternate. They are narrower than those 
of the Silvei-top (F. Siehenanri. F. v. M.), and of the Peppermint Gum 
[E. piperita. Sni.) to both of which the Yertehuk (E. Consideniana) 
IS closely related and possibly a hybrid of these two species. The 
sucker leaves of the Yertehuk are of a rather strong peppermint 
odour and often of silvery ap])earance. The young branchlets and 
seedling stems are angular. 

The flower clusters have numerous buds, with the typical form of 
the Narrow-leaved Pepper-mint (A', .-lusfraliaiui), to which also the shape 
of the bud and the depressed lid belong, which, however, in the Yert- 
ehuk IS sometimes pointed. 

The fruits are generally pear-shaped, often nearly conical, rather 
more than J-mch m diameter. The rim of the fruit broad, smooth, 
well dehned, and usually red in colour; it is somewhat like that of the 
ScribWy Gum (A. hannasfoma), but the latter is a ffum, or smooth- 
barked species. 

This species can be most conveniently distinguished by its pear-shaped 
li-uits andpeppermmt bark, its narrow sucker leaves are also 
characteristic. 

The timber is pale-coloured, with gum rings, remarkably like that of 
the Peppermint Gum (A. piperita. Sm.). It is soft and stringy, not 
nearly so good as that of the Silvertop (^. Sieberiatia. F. y. M.). 

Nothing IS yet known of the value of the Yertehuk to the apiarist. 



Victorian Eucali/pta. 



73 






y 



f 






-' ./ 









v^ 



4 ^ ^'' 



^r^ 




V 



•I ■ I 

I J 



1' 

I : 



^ 



Fig. 35.— The Yertchuk (Eandyptus Coiiskkiiiana, Maiden). 



The lldiiri/ Fldia (if Vicf< 



The Mealy Stkixoybark (Eucalijptiis ciiicrca. F.v.M.). 

Fig. 36. Upper part of plate. 

A moderate-sized tree, flowering already in tlie shrubby state, the 
trunk is comparatively short, with branches at from 10 to 15 feet from 
the ground even in aged trees; the wood is twisted and brittle, and of 
inferior value, the bark fibrous but not distinctly stringy, light-brown 
to grey outside and light-brown with a reddish tinge inside ; usually only 
the upper branches are smooth. 

The foliage has a variable whitish or ashy bloom. The leaves either 
stalkless and opposite, and heart to egg-shaped, as seen in the illustration 
Fig. 36, 1a, 1b, 5, and 6, or broad lancei and even narrow-lance shaped 
on short stalks, as shown at 3 and 4, or of an intermediate shape as at 6, 
while sucker and seedling leaves are almost round (2). The lance- 
shaped leaves are found more on aged trees, and become even alternate 
or scattered instead of opposite, but broad and lance-shaped leaves are 
often found on the same tree ; the veins of the leaves are very spreading, 
not conspicuous, the marginal veins remote from the edge. 

The ilowers are at the shoulders of leaves in threes, only exceptionally 
at the end of branchlets, which latter are thin and round. The buds are 
half round, pointed or conical to broad conical; the fruits small, half 
round top-shaped, three to four, rarely five celled. This tree flowers 
from October to December, and although it does not perhaps rank high 
as a nectar producer, it is like some others, enumerated to enable the 
reader to distingiiish it from others of greater apicultural or timber 
value. 

Thei Mealy Stringybark is' found in Victoria, in the North-Eastern 
district, where it is known as turpentine tree, on account of a somewhat 
terebinthine odour of the bark, or as silver-leaved stringybark ; this name 
has now, however, been adopted for a variety slightly different and 
growing in the south-eastern parts of the State. 



The Silver Steingybahk (Eucahiptus rincri'd. Var. in u It i flora). 
Fig. 36. Lower part of plate. 

A tree usually of medium size, but it may attain a height of about 
100 feet, bark softly fibrous, greyish to browai outside, reddish-brown 
inside, and on old, stunted trees in swampy ground of great thickness in 
comparison with the size of the tree. Timber reddish, inferior in 
quality, soft short grained, and often hollow when growing on low 
ground. 

The leaves of suckers and young saplings are broad egg-shaped 
(7, lower part of Fig. 36), or heart-shaped, staHless and opposite, 
changing in older trees to longer and narrower short-stalked opposite 
(8a), or narrow lance-shaped scattered leaves (8b), but all kinds are 
quite commonly found on the same adult tree. Young foliage, as also 
buds and branchlets, frequently covered with a white or bluish bloom, 
giving the tree a silvery appearance, hence the loeal name " Silver 
Stringybark." 



Victorian Eucalyyift. 



75 



Flowers in umbels of four to eight at shoulders of leaves; the buds 
ronical pointed ; fruits small, half round to top shaped. 

This tree appears to be confined to the eastern half of Victoria, and 
particularly the south-east ; from the vicinity of Melbourne to Omeo and 
Buchan it is foimd in many places in districts with a good rainfall, 




Fig. 36.— The Mealy Stringybark 

(EvxalypUis cinerea, V. v. M.) Upper part of Plate 1-6. 

Fif. 36.— The Silver Stringybark 

[ICmhirlH- r\>ie:v',. vlr. vnilfiflorn. Maiden). Lower part of Plate 7-10. 

eenerallv on poor soil on low sandy heath country, or on bayonet-grass 

flats St also <m lo^w hUls. near or mt.nnmgled ;.vith Messmate 

/ ■„/, lo and narrow-leaved peppermint. As a tnnber tree it is 



76 The. Honeif Flora of Victoria. 

almost worthless ; even for fuel purposes it is inferior ; but to- the bee- 
keeper in the localities where it grows it is ai valuable tree, furnishing an 
autumn supply of nectar and pollen, which enables the bees not only to 
accumulate winter stores, but often alsO' to store surplus and always to 
keep up brood rearing till quite late in the seiason. In this respect it 
takes in the eastern j^art of the State the place of the long-leaved bcix 
(E. chraphora), which is so highly appreciated by the apiarists of the 
drier districts, on account of the successful wintering of the bees always 
connected with its flowerino'. 

The Silver Stringj'bark, which is also known by seiveral other 
names, such as apple tree and red stringybark, flowers every second year 
from March to May or June, and is freely visited by bees even so late 
in the season when frosts occur at night. The honey granulates or 
candies somewhat coarsely, but never very hard, and although it is one 
of the darker kinds, it is yet one of the best flavoured of the localities 
producing it. 



The Red Mountain Ash (E iiadijpl iix ri'iijunten. gyn. E. Bdegatensis). 

Fig. 37. 

A very tall tree occurring on the top of mountain ranges. The 
bark is stringy and reddish extending well up the trunk. The leaves 
are comparatively large, often 9 inches long and 2 broad, pointed lance- 
shaped, with the veins prominent, the marginal vein removed from 
the edge. Sucker leaves broad, lance-shaped uneven&ided with pro- 
minent veins. 

Flowers six to ten in a cluster on a stalk about 6 inches lono- at 
shoulders of leaves; buds with short tube and half-round blunt" lid 
Fruit pear-shaped with thick rim. 

Judged by specimens of leaves and buds this tree is difficult to dif 
ferentiate from the Silvertop {E. Sieberiana), sucker leaves also are 
very similar, but bark and timber of the two are quite different. 

Found m Victcria on mountain ranges in the eastern part o-gnerallv 
not below an elevation of 3,000 feet. The wood is reddish when fresh 
but dries pale; it is tough and springy, and used for cabinet and three- 
ply work. 

Nothing is so far known as to its value as a source of nectar and 
pollen. 



Victor tan Eucalypts. 




F(g. 37.— The Red Mountain Ash (E. gigantea. Syn. E. Ddegatawis, E. T. Baker). 
[From Proceedings, Liniieau Society, X.8.W., 1900.] 



7S 7Vmi llniii'ii Fliird of Viclitr'ia. 



The Grampians (tum (Eucah/jtfiis alpiiia. Liiidley). 
Fig. 38. 

A dwarf eucalypt of no economic value, and remarkable for being 
confined to a restricted area in the Grampians, where it is found at an 
elevation of over .3,000 feet. 

It was discovered by Colonel Sir Thomas Mitchell, when that eminent 
explorer discovered the Grampians, and ascended, in July, 1836, the 
mountain now known as Mount William. 

It is probably the slowest growing of our eucalypts, which is quite 
remarkable, because its nearest systematic relative is the Blue Gum 
(A'. f/Iobiiliis). our fastest growing tree, wliicli it much resembles in its 
wartv buds and fruits. 



1' Iclonun Eacaiij j>ls 



"^Ns \ 



\ 



ki I 'i 



:i 




Fig. 38.— The Grampians Gum {Eucalyptus alpinn, Lindley). 



80 TJie Uoiii'i/ Flora of Victoria. 



IV. Ironbark Group. 

Tbe Red Ironbark (Eiicah/pias siih'/o.ri/loi!). 

Fig. 39. 

The Red Ivoiibaik, also known as Rough and Elack Ironbark, grows 
chiefly on ironstone ridges and gravelly rises. It is not a very tall tree-, 
except in East Gippsland, but sometimes attains to 5 feet in cliameter at 
the base, nsnally upright in habit, but drooping in the outer branches of 
old trees, the large handsome flowers resembling fuchsias from a distance. 
The bark, which varies from dark-grey and brown to black, is de^eply 
furrowed en old trees, very hard, and of great thickness. Leaves, 
flowers, buds, and fruits are almost identical with those of the Yellow 
Gum, but are usually somewhat larger. The' flowers are white, 
cccasionallj' pink. Tn most localities it blossoius between June and 
Septeniber. In the Inglewood and Tarnagulla districts, however, it 
appears to flower in Fehruary. It is in bud from five to six mouths. 
No ]5ollen is gathered from the Ijlossom. The honey is of fine quality, 
and candies with a fine grain much like^ that of Yellow Gum, great yields 
of it are harvested when the tree flowers during suitable weather and 
occurs in great numbers together. 

The weed, which is red in colour, tough, hard, and strong, is one 
of the most durable and valuable of the hard woods. It is largely used 
for railway sleepers, telegraph poles, piles, Avaggon work, &c. While iu 
leaf, flower and fruit, the Red Ironbark closely resembles the Yellow 
Gum till recently known as White Ironbark ; it differs from it con- 
siderably in general appearance, the bark, and the colour of the wood. 
In the seedling and sucker leaves thei two are quite distinct, as will be 
seen cu referenos to the illustration (Fig. 39). B and C represent 
seedling and sucker of the Red Ironbark, and G, H, and K the same of 
the Yellow Gum, 



Victorian Eucalypts. 



81 




Fig. 39.— The Red Ironbark (Encnhjjitus .^iderox;//oi>, A. C'unn.). 



S'2 Till' JJoiii-'ij Fliira of 1 iciiinii. 



Thk Grey Ieunbark (E ttcaliiidus jiainculata. Sm.). 
Fig. 40. 

A tree of medium size, usually 60 to 70 feet in height, with a diameter 
of 2 to 4 feet; exceptionally it attains a greater size. It is found chiefly 
in New South Wales, but extends into Eastern Victoria, occurring at 
Mount Taylor. 

It is known by different local names such as Grey Ironbark, White 
Ironliark, on account of the paleness of the timber as compared with 
the Red Ironbark {E nral i/jifiis sidi ro.ri/Ioii), also as Ironbark and 
Ked Ironbark, in reference to the pale-red colour of the wood. 

The leaves arc scattered, of rather thin consistence, narrow lance- 
shaped, long lance or sometimes broad-lance shaped, slightly curved, 
paler and dull coloured beneath, hardly shining on the upper surface. 
The lateral veins of the leaves are very spreading, faint and numerous, 
the marginal vein close to the edge of the leaf. 

The flowers occur in tufts or panicles, hence the specific name 
" paniculata." A few of the flowers, however, also appear at the 
shoulders of leaves and in single clusters of from three to eight flowers 
on slender angular stalks. The buds are egg-shaped, tapering into the 
stalk, the calyx (flower cup) generally longer than the half-round, more 
or less pointed lid. The fruits, which are sometimes much smaller 
than the normal type, are somewhat pear-shaped, slightly contracted 
at the summit, three to four, or rarely five-celled, with two to four 
angular streaks. 

The bark is of the hard rugged kind as indicated by the popular 
name; it is often pale-coloured, even grej', while that of the Red. 
Ironbark (Eucah/ptus sideroxylon) is almost black. 

The timber, which is pale pink when freshly cut, becomes darker 
with age, is not excelled by any other timber for combined strength 
and durability. 

The Grey Ironbark is not easily confused with any other Victorian 
species, as onl,y two others, the Eed Ironbark (E. sideroxylon) and the 
Silver Top (E. Sieheriana") have the characteristic bark. The Red 
Ironbark has a deep red wood and a black bark as distinguished from 
the pale pink wood and paler or greyish bark of the Grey Ironbark. 
Both these species grow on ironstone ridges and dry, poor land, while 
the Silver Top (E. Sieheriana) inhabits moister situations. 



Vii'luridit Em tdi/fi/^. 



s;l 




ik<:-4-^\ Ik 




f 91 



ii^;'^,r; r^ 






ml 



:& 






A, 'tr .|:V?.f 



/ 



U 






,j,^. 



Fig. 40. — ^The Grey Ironbark (Euralyphis paniailata. Smith)- 



84 Tlte Hritiri/ Flora of }'irtui-ia. 



The Silvertop {Euccdyptus Siehenana, F. v. M.). 

Fig. 41. 

This tree' is vario'usly known as Mountain Ash, Ironbark, and Silver- 
top Ironbark. lb- is tall with a dark fibrous bark. The leaves of mature 
trees at^e lance-shaped, sliwhtl}' curved, with the marginal vein removed 
from the edge and the veins fairly prominent. Thei sucker leaves are 
oblicjue, egg-shaped, and about 3 inches long, or lance-shaped curved, 
and up to over 6 inches long. The buds are club-shaped, numerous in an 
umbel, the fruit pear shaped. 

The timber is light in colour, not hard, usually straight, and free in 
g/rain, easily worked, and extensively used for railway sleepers, palings, 
shingles, spokes, and recommended for shafts, &c. 

The Silvertop is found, usually on high ground, particularly sand- 
stone ridges, on the Upper Yarra and Gippsland. It flowers more or 
less evei-y year in August, September, and October. It yields pollen and 
amber-coloured honey which candies and is not of the first grade. 



Viiiorian Enculi/pts. 



85 




Fig. 41. — ^The Silvertop (Eucalyptus S'eheriuna, F. v. J[. ). 



86 The Honey Flora of Victoria. 



V. Wrinkled Bark Group. 

The Mahogany Gum [E uiydi/jitus holryoiJes. Smith). 

Fig. 42. 

The Mahogany Gum, Bastaixl Mahogany or Bangalay, when growing 
on elevated ground is a fine upright tree with a straight trunk of large 
dimensions, and is of very rapid growth. On low ground and banks of 
creeks it is usually gnarled. The bark is red coloured, short grained, 
flaky, and brittle. The timber is hard, close grained, red coloaired, and 
very durable, used for fellces of wheels, ship' building, &c. 

The leaves are broad lanoe-shaped, about 6 inches long, shining on 
the upper surface; the veins well marked, fine, and numerous, almost at 
right angles to the mid-rib with marginal vein very near the edge. The 
buds and fruits are compact, elongated, and characteristic of the species. 

In Victoria it is found in East Gippsland. As a nectar or polkai 
producer it does not rank high, its flowering time is uncertain, nor is 
the honey first grade, but it yields pollen to bees. 

On account of its beautiful dark foliage and compact habit of growth 
it is coming into favour for planting in streets, parks, and as a break- 
wind. 



iiioriaii Eitcah/pls. 




Fig. 42. — The Mahogany Gum (Euia'yj tu^ botri/oides. Smith). 



88 The Honey Flora of Victoria. 



The Blood Wood (Eucalyptus corijmhosa, Smith). 
Fig. 43. 

The Blood Wood is a tree not easily confounded with other species. It 
attains a maximum height of 150 feet, but is often of much lower and 
sometimes stunted giowth, flowering already when scarcely beyond its 
earh' shrubby stage. 

Tlie bark is persistent furrowed, of a reddish colour, inside fibrous, 
but rather flaky than stringy, outside rough, grey, and turning black. 
Bark of the upper branches smootli, and often reddish. The tree exudes 
kmo (gum) abundantly, the whole stem being sometimes covered with 
this reddish blood-like substance, and hence its popular name. 

The timber has a deep red fleshy colour, is porous, and has numerous 
gum veins ; it is easy enough worked when fresh, but becomes very hard 
when drv. It lasts well underground, and is resistant to termites 
(white ants), and teredo (sea worm). It is used in fencing and for piles 
and railway sleepers. 

The leaves are scattered on slightly angular branchlets. The leaves 
vary in size up to 9 inches long and 2 inches broad, of firm consistence, 
lance-shaped, somewhat curved, or slightly sickle-shaped, paler on the 
under side, veins very numerous, and very fine, only slightly oblique, 
the marginal vein close to the edge of the leaf. 

The flower clusters occur in sprays forming a nearly flat top, rarely 
singly at leaf-shoulders, or lateral on branchlets on slender, slightly 
compressed or angular stalks, bearing three to nine rather large flowers. 
Buds nearly 1 inch long with flower cup tapering into the stalklet, and 
a half-round, short, pointed lid. Fruit about 1 inch long more or less 
urn-shaped, not angular, three or oftener four celled. 

The Blood Wood is found in Victoria only in the far eastern part, in 
the vicinity of the Genoa River. 

No Victorian data are available as to its honey-producing value, 
owing to it not occurring in any present bee-keeping localities. It is, 
however, considered of some importance by New South Wales apiarists. 



V ii-toiitii! E)icahjplfi 



89 




Fig. 43.— The Blood Wood (Eucalyptus corymbom. Smith). 



00 The Honcij Flora of Ticloria. 



The Blackbutt (Eiicali/pf us pthdaris). 

Fig. 44. 

A tree attaining under favorable conditions a height of 300 feet, 
but as a rule' of much less height. Its ho'ine is in New South Wales. 

The timber is excellent for general purposes, used largely for build- 
ing, furnishing material for flooring boards and superior shingles; also 
utilised for telegraph poles and railway sleepers. 

The rough bark which covers the lower part of the trunk, but some- 
times continues to the branches, is blackish grey outside, somewhat 
fibrous and brownish inside. The bark of the branches and sometimes 
of the upper portion of the stem is smooth and grey, or whitish in 
colour. 

The leaves, which are scattered on the distinctly angular branchlets, 
are narrow, or sickle lance shaped, rather more shining on the upper 
than on the lower side; the veins are numerous, but very faint. 

The clusters of flowers occur mostly singly from the shoulders of 
leaves on a strongly compressed stalk, bearing from four to sixteen 
flowers. The stalklets of buds are rather thick and angular, the lids 
of the buds conical, distinctly pointed; the fruit is half-egg or almost 
cup-shaped, three or four, but rarely five celled. 

The Blackbutt is one of a number of eucalvpts of which, from an 
apicultural point of view, practically nothing authentic is known. The 
regrettable dearth of information as to nectar production, frequency 
and time of flowering and length of time in bud which still exists in 
regard to several eucalypts growing in the moister parts of the State, is 
in the first instance due to the absence of interested observers, specialist 
bee-keepers having so far not invaded this class of country, and 
secondly to the difficulty of ascertaining the sources of nectar and 
pollen gathered by the bees in localities where the timber is tall, largely 
intermingled, and several varieties flower at the same time. 

It IS dcubtful whether more than isolated specimens of this species 
occur m Vir terra, but the name Blackbutt is applied to several ether 
Eucalypts in some districts. 



Viciorlaii Eiicii.li/pls. 



91 



re~v,. 



A / 

\ / 



\'; '■ 










,u/ i; fi m 



Fig. 44.— The Blackbutt (Eucalyylus pilularis. Smith). 



92 Tlie Ifivin/ Flora of Vicioria. 



The Woolly Bxttt (Eticali/jii us lonijifoliii , Link). 

Fig. 45. 

The Woolly Butt is a tall tree, witli a grey fibrous bark extending to 
the upper branches, which are smooth. The durable and very valuable 
timber varies firom a light colour to dark red in colour, hard, and cross 
grained. The leaves are lance-shaped, often 12 inches in length, hence 
the botanical name, not shining, the A-eins well marked with the 
marginal vein rather close to the edge. Buds, flowers, and fruits com- 
paratively large, occur mostly in threes on rather long stalks and 
stalklets." 

This is a Ijeautiful foliaged tree growing on the eastern exti:-eniity of 
Gip'psland, extending into Victoria from New South Wales. It is a 
valuable timber for sleejiers, piles, &c. , wherever there is contact with 
the ground. 

The Woolly Butt flowers m January, February, and March, yielding 
pollen to bees and an amber-colcured hcnev. 



Victorian. EucaJinjts 



ijpts. 



n 







Fig. 45. — The Woolly Butt (Eucalyptus longifolia. Link). 



94 The Honei/ Flora of Victoria. 



VI. Peppermint Group. 

The Oiant Gum oe White Mountain Ash (Kur/ili/pfiis rcgnatm). 

Figs. 46 and 12. 

This tree k closely allied to the Narrow-leaved Peppermiut (Eucalyp- 
tii.i Aiistraliaim, syn. ami/ydalina), it is known as Blackbntt, Mountain 
Asli, and even Whitei Gum. In Victoria it occurs over a wide area in 
South and Western Gippsland together with Messmate (E . o'hliqua), and 
Blue Gum (E. <ihihuhis). 

It is the largest ^lee in Australia, trees over 300 feet high being 
known in Victoria. It was formerly held to be of much greater height, 
as much as over 400 feet; authoritative measurements have, however, 
since reduced it to somewhat over 300 feet. 

The fcllowiug description is eixtracte'd and the illusitration (Fig. 46) 
taken from Mr. J. H. Maiden's Forest Flora of Nei^ South Wales. 

The mature leaves are lance-shaped to broad lance-shaped, shining 
on both sides, usually thin in texture (but sometimes quite leather-like), 
veins slightly spreading, oil dots extremely numerous. A common 
method of recognising E. ref/?uiiis is to hold up a leaf to the light and 
to notice the fine oil dots which cover its surface, but this characteristic 
is possessed by the leaves of a few other species. 

The juvenile leaves of young seedlings are broad-lance-sliaped, and 
opposite, but soon become scattered on the stem and broad lance-shaped, 
unequal-sided, pointed very like those of Messmate (E . ohliqua) 
saplings. The buds are rounded to pointed conical in clusters occurring 
singly or in pairs. The fruits are variable in size and shape, the stalk 
of the cluster is often an inch long. 

The bark is more or less fibrous in the under layers on the butt of 
the trunk. On the giant trees there is very often little of this bark, the 
upper portion resembling a White Gum. On other trees of the same 
species the fibrous bark runs further up the trunk, and tbus it follows 
that the same species may locally be called either a White Gum or a 
Blackbutt. 

The timber is pale coloured, very fissile (free in grain) and therefore 
well adapted for palings, shingles, and fence rails; it is also extensively 
used for saw-mill purposes. 

As to the value of the Giant Gum for bee-keeping purposes, nothing 
is known, as it occurs in districts where commercial bee-keeping is not 
yet carried on, and therefore no observations have been made as to the 
amount and character of the honey, and whether it furnishes pollen 
for bees ; but it is probable that in this respect it resembles the closely- 
allied species JSTavrow-leaved Peppermint and Broad-leaf Peppermint. 



Victori.uH Eucali/iils. 



95 




Fig. 46. — The Giant Gum or White Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnaiiss, F. v. M.). 



96 The Ifoiiei/ Flora of Victoria. 



The C'ojijmijk "k Xakkow-Leaf Peim-ekmint (Euculyptux Aiistraliana. 
Baker. Syii. E. ainygdalina) . 

Fig. 47. 

The peppermint eucalypt of Victoria, New South Wales, and Tas- 
mania, occurring in Victoria on the poorer soils, in the cooler districts 
In some localities it is known as "Messmate," from which, however, it is 
very easily distinguished and in the company of which it often grows. 
This is the tre'e from the leaves of which most of the' commercial 
eucalyptus oil was first distilled but many othef species arei now being 
utilized . 

A tree usually small or moderate-sized, but sometimes attaining 
considerahle height, the bark is fibrous on the trunk and larger branches, 
but usually smooth higher up. It is grey or browiiisb-grey in colour, 
and not so fibrous as that of stringybark. 

The leaves are narrow, long lance-shaped, sharply pointed, rather 
thin; the veins are few and oblique, not prominent; usually the foliagi 
is dense and drooping; the buds are short-j)ointed, generally very 
numerous in the umbels; the fruit small, with a flat or slightly concave 
rim. 

The peppermints, of which there are several, are readily distinguisbed 
from other eucalypts by the strong pepjaermint odour of tbe leaves when 
bruised. 

The wood is pale-coloured (nearly white) when newly cut, but dries 
to a pale brown, it often contains gum veins, is of inferior durability, 
but occasionally used for fence posts and shingles, and makes fair fuel. 

The narrow-leaf peppermint blossoms from October to December, 
in siome districts January, February, practically every year, and rather 
profusely, but it does not appear to be of much value to the be«keieper. 
In the writer's experience of twelve years' beekeeping in peippermint 
country it never yielded enough nectar or pollen to be noticeable in the 
liive^, and the yields O'f peppermint honey sometimes reported were 
probably obtained from other eucalypts called peppermint in that 
Iccality. 

In the Beechworth district, however, it sometimes yields well. The 
honey is not first class, and candies quickly and very hard. 

A. tree found in Ta.=mania was first described and named Eucalyptus 
(uiu/ridnliiKi, and the mainland tree now known as Peppermint was held 
to be the same. Following upon later researches establishin.o- two distinct 
species the botanical designation 7s'. A iistraliana was adopted for the t'-ee 
on the mainland, and E. amyrjluliva. for tbe Tasmanian species. 



Victorian Eucahjpts. 



97 




Fig 47.-The Common or Narrow-leaf Peppermint (Eucalyptus Austral!a„a 
Syn. amygdalina, Labi.). 



1977 —4 



OS I'lic lliiiicji Flora of Vicioria. 



i The Bhoad-leai' or Blue Peppehmint (Eiicali/pfus dives). 

Fig. 48. 

A tree of medimii size, but often flowering as a. tall shrub, occurring 
in Victoria chiefly in the North-Eastern portion, and in a dwarfed state 
on part of the outer fringe of the Grampians. It closely resemblesi the 
Common or Narrow-leaf Peppermint, together with which it grows 
in some localities. The leaves are generally broader than those of 
the latter; the chief distinguishing feature, however, is the sucker leaves, 
which are quite narrow in one and broad in the other, as will be seen 
on reference to the illustrations (Figs. 47 and 48). Generally speaking, 
the Broad-leaf is more aromatic than the Narrow-leaf Peipperinint, 
the odour different, though difficult to describe, and the fruits are 
usually larger. 

The leaves are broadly lance-shaped, nearly synnuetrieal, and usually 
rather thick, the veins spreading and conspicuous. The buds usually 
blunt, but not distinctly rounded. It is a profusely-flowering species, 
with clusters of eight to twelve and even more flowers. The fruits are 
sometimes nearly half-round, or more or less inclined to pear shape. 

The timber is pale-coloured, full of gum veins, and almost useless 
excepting for fuel. 

This tree is known also as Peppermint, Blue Peppermint, and in the 
North-East of this State as Messmate. 

As a honey-yielding tree it does not rank very high ; like the Narrow- 
leaf Peppermint, it is so far reported as. nectar' producing only from 
the North-Eastern District, secreting only at intervals of years. 

The honey is somewhat paler than that of the Narrow-leaf Pepper- 
mint, which, however, may be due to admixtures of honey from other 
sources. It candies quickly. No information is available as to whether 
it yields pollen for bees. 



Victorian Eticali/ptt<. 



9ft 




Fig. 48.-The Broad-leaf or Blue Peppermint (Eucalyptus dives, Schuuer). 



100 Tlif: Hoiici/ Flora of Victoria. 



The Sydney Peppermint oe Peppermint Gum {Eucalyptus pljjerita. 

Smith). 

Fig. 49. 

A tall tree, with a irniik up to 4 feet in diameter. Stem and branches 
covered Avith fibrous bark, rough and grey outside. The branchlets are 
slender ; the leaves scattered, sickle-lance-shaped, not very long, more 
shining on the tipper than the lower side, dark green, and usually thin ; 
their lateral veins faint and numerous; the marginal vein somewhat 
removed from the edge. The clusters of from five to fifteen, rarely 
three to four flowers, occur at the shoulders of leaves, or mostly lateral on 
the branchlets, on slender, slightly compressed stalks ; buds on short 
stalklets; lower part of bud half egg-shaped, top broad, conical, pointed; 
fruits usually small, globular, egg-shaped, three- or, much oftener, four- 
celled ; fruits occasionally larger and less roundish than thosie shown in 
the illustration. (Fig. 49). 

This tree is closely allied to the Blackbutt (B. pilularis), the White 
Stringybark {E . eui/cirioidcs), and to the Messmate {E . ohliqua), as well 
as the Scribbly Gum (/:'. hacmojttonui) ; and these different species are 
sometimes not readily distinguished from ouei anothei;-. The Sydney 
Peppermint differs frcm the Blackbutt (E . jfilularts) chiefly in its rough 
bark extending to the branches (which in the Blackbutt are smooth), in 
more slender and less augula; branchlets, and smaller flowers. 

From the White Stringybark (B. eugenioides), which was considered 
by Bentham to be a variety of the former, it is not easily distinguished, 
but its seedlings are smooth, while those of E. eugenioides are hairy (as 
bhown in the background of the illustration). (Fig. 49.) The Mess- 
mate {E. ohliqua) is distinguishable from the Sydney Peppermint {E. 
piperita) by the larger and thicker leaves of the former, which are of 
equal colour and shining on both sides, by the shorter and rounded 
blunt lid of the bud, and its longer conical lower part, or tube. 

The distinguishing features of each species will become apparent on 
reference to the respective illustrations (viz Figs ^'9 44 30 33 
and 28). 

Tlie Sydney Pei>permiut is found on less fertile areas, from the ccast 
to the mountain region, occurring even on sand lands in Gippslaud and 
IS^ew South Wales. 

The timber is useful for posts and shingles, but inferior to that of 
the allied species previously referred to. 

Of its value as a nectar-producing tree nothing can be said till its 
identity is established in districts from which information is available, 
but which may refer to one or other of the allied species. 



l icioiKin I'J ucalypts. 




Fig. 49. — The Sydney Peppermint (Eucalyptus piperita. Smith). 



102 The lluncji Flora of Victoria. 



The Whitetop Gum (Eiicaly pfiix viin'ii, R. T. Baker). 

Fig. 50. 

A tall tree with roughish bark similar to that of the^ Najrrow-leaf 
(Common) Peppermint {E. Australiana), the extremities of the 
! ranches being smooth. In the adult foliage the leaves are uarroiw, laiice- 
shaped, about 6 inches long, of dull green, shining on both -sides, stalk 
short, few veins and almost parallel to' the midrib. The sucker leaves are 
alternate or opposite on a short stalk or stalkless, egg-lance-shaped 
pointed, under 6 inches long, and H inches broad; the lateral veins 
diverge from below the middle of the midrib, and are prominent on 
both sides, with the marginal vein removed from the edge of the leaf. 

The flower clusters are at the shoulders of leaves, and bear generally 
from five to eight flowers; buds with lid half-round, short pointed; 
fruit half-round. 

The timber is moderately hard and close grained, full of shakes and 
gum veins and apparently of little value. This tree is also known as 
Silvertop Messmate, Peppermint, and Messmate. The term Silvertop 
refers to the silvery appearance of the tree in the sunlight, due to the 
reflectic'U of the light from the surface of the shiny leaves causing them 
to appear silvery. The term White Top is no doubt used to distinguish 
it from the Peppermint (E. Auxtraliitiiii), often known as Messmate. In 
Victoria the Whitetop Gum is found in the eastern pa'rts of the State. 

Thai Whitetop Gum is one of the Peppermint group of Eucalypts, it 
flowers in November, December, and January. ,_ The honey is dark 
amber and the tree also- yields pollen for bees. 



\'ictoriun Euculi/pls. 



io;j 




Fig. so.— The Whitetop Gum (Evcahjplus vitrea, R. T. Baker). 



104 The Hiiiiri/ Flora of Victoria. 



The RrvER White Gsum (Ei/cati/ptus rtu/inta, Sieb.). 

Fii. 51. 

A fairly tall tree, with a hard, black bark on the lower portion of 
the trank, but smooth on the upper part of the tree. The sucker leaves 
are thin and stalkless or almost steim-siu-rounding resembling those of 
the N"arrow-leaf Peppermint ( E. Australiana) ; they are opposite, 
narrow, and about 3 to 4 inches long. The leaves of adult trees are 
lance-shaped, generally about 6 inches long on a stalk about 1 inch long. 

The veins of the leaves are not prominent, the marginal one removed 
from the edge. The flowers are very numerous, there being up to thirty 
in a cluster, which occur at the shoulders of leaves ; the flower-cup is 
top-shaped, tapering into a long thread-like stalk, the lid (top) of the 
bud is blunt. The fruit is numerous, small, pill-shaped on thread-like 
stalks, rim thin, contracted. 

The timber is pale, easily split and wcrked, and appears suitable for 
building purposes. The leaves yield a useful oil. 

This tree is found in Victoria along rivers and creeks, principally in 
the eastern part of the State. 



1 nioiiiin Kiicaliipla. 



\m 




Fig. 51.— The River White Gum {Encalyptus radiata, Sieb.l, 



l()(i Till? Iliincii Floffi of VifUiiiti. 



VII. Mallee Group. 

The Bull Mallee {Eucalyptus Behriana). 

Fig. 52. 

A tall shrub or small and perhaps never a tall tree, which may be 
said to form a connecting link between the tree eucalypts and those of 
a shrubby type included under the general term of Mallee. 

The outer bark is brownish or dark, and is shed in large flakes, leaving 
the surface of the stem r.nd main branches smooth and greenish. The 
foliage is rather massive, leaves scattered, broadish or oval lance-shaped, 
of thick consistence, of equal colour and shining on both sides, not at 
all or only slightly curved, occasionally tinged with whitish bloom. The 
veins of the leaves are somewhat prominent, rather distant, the marginal 
vein distinctly removed from the edge of the leaf. 

The clusters of flowers, seven or less in each, are in sprays ; the buds 
are blunt or half-round ended, not angular; fruits small, cylinder-shaped 
or top-shaped, oval, three or oftener four celled, with a narrow rim. 

In its relationship the Bull Mallee approaches closely to the Grey Box 
{E. hemiphloia), from which it mainly differs in never attaining the 
stately dimensions of that species ; in the bark remaining smooth from 
the shedding of the outer layers; besides, the leaves are, as a rule (with 
exceptions), shorter and broader, the sprays of flowers are less ample 
and the flowers and fruits smaller, their stalklets shorter and the buds 
blunter than those of the Grey Box (E . hemiphJoiii). 

The Bull Malleiei (E . Behriana) claims also near affinity with Black 
Box {E. bicolor), but thei bark of thei latter dGe;> not shed, the leaves arei 
narrower, thinner, of duller hue, and finer -veined, and the, sprays of 
flowers more spreading; thus the resemblance of E. Hehriano) in foliage 
is closer to E. kemiphloia, hut in flowers and fruits nearer to Black 
Box {E. hicolor); while in bark it differs from both. It is also related 
toi E. odo'i-afr. thei Scenteid Box, but the latter has a. boiX bark, and the 
clusters cf flowers occur at the shoulders of leaves, net in sprays. 

The Bull Mallee is found near thei sources of the Werribee River, om 
stony hills, extending thence to the Avoca and the north-west. N"othing 
definite is so far knoi\Ti is to the character of the honey gathered from 
this treie, but it most likely resembleis that obtained from. Grey Box, 
with which it also agrees in time of floweiing and pollen production. 



T-' icli/riuii Euculf/pls. 



107 




Fig. 52.— The Bull Mallee {Eucalyptus Behriana., 



F. V. M.). 



lOcS 17) e Honey Flora of Victoria. 



The Hookfd Mallee {EucalyphiS uncinata). 
Fig. 53. 

This species always remains of a shrubby growth, with several thin 
stems branched from near the base. It constitutes, chiefly along with 
the Oil Mallee (E . ohona) and Slender Malleei {E . Qcilycogona), a con- 
siderable portion of the Mallee scrub. The bark is smooth and greyish, 
or may assume on the branches and branchlets a dark hue, hence the 
name black mallee, by which it is known in some localities. Branches 
erect, never drooping. The leaves are scattered, on short stalks, usually 
narrow lance-shaped, of equal green on both sides and somewhat shining, 
occasionally they are broad lance-shaped, or very narrow and long, but 
always copiousljr dark dotted with oil glands. The veins exceedingly 
fine, rather close and spreading, but nowhere prominent, the marginal 
vein very close to the edge of the leaf which terminates (as in some 
other eucalypts) in a fine hooked point, from, which feature in this 
instance the name is obtained. The clusters contain from three to nine 
flowers, and occur at the shoulders of leaves, or in short end sprays 
(occasionally), and on aged wood sideways from branchlets. The buds 
almost egg-shap)ed, but the lid sometimes narrow conical ; the fruit small, 
half egg-shaped, mostly three, sometimes four celled. 

The Hooked Mallee is on© of those' from the leaves of which eucalyptus 
oil is distilled. 

As a nectar and i^ollen producer, this is one of the best of the mallee 
eucalypts kno'svn to beekeepers. It flowers profusely every second year 
during Mpj-ch, April, and May, in some localities from June to Novem- 
ber, lasting about twelve weeks. The bud& a,pj;ear three tO' four months 
before flowering. 

The hone.y is of good quality, not very dense, but this slight defect 
is perhaps due only to the comparatively high humidity of the atmos- 
phere at time of gathering, and can be rectified by running it from the 
extractor through a suitable heating apparatus, as is now being done 
by some apiarists with honey from other late flowering trees. It candies, 
but not solidly. 

There are large tracts of the Hooked Mallee available for apiarists, 
and, as the flowering of this species alternates with that of vellow box 
and red gum in the western half of the State, it provides a profitable 
field for operations by moving the apiaries to it evecry second year and 
back to the forest country thei following season. 

Moreover, this particular mallee, and some others, grow chiefly on 
soil too poor for cultivation purposes, and the bee pasture is therefore 
more likely to be permanent. 



Victor'um Eticalypts. 



101) 



w 






iik 






xV 












m 



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f *■, 



Fig. 53.— The Hooked Mallee {Evcahjptus unchmla, Turczaniiiou) 



W The Honey Flora of Victoria. 



The Slender Mallee (Eucalyptus calycogona. Syn. E. gracilis). 

Fig. 54. 

A shrubby eucalpyt t'onuiug, together with the Giant Mallee 
{E. incra^safa), the Hooked Mallee (E. uncinata), and the Oil Mallee 
(E. oleosa), the extensive Mallee Scrubs. Several stems usually spring 
from the one root, flowering occasionally at a height of 6 feet, but in 
the course of years rising to 25 feet. Bark silvery-grey or whitish. 
Leaves scattered, narrow lance-shaped or oblong linear, not very long, 
nor very uneven-sided, slightly curved, of equal colour and shining on 
both sides, veins hardlj^ visible, not very spreading. Clusters of 
flowers singly at shoulders of leaves or some few endways, on thin stalks, 
with usually four to eight comparatively small flowers ; buds lined 
lengthways with three to five angles ; lid half-round or pyramid-shaped ; 
fruits small, reversed conical,, or somewhat urn-shaped, sometimes half 
egg-shaped, usually faintly angular, three or oftener four celled. 

The Mallee Eucalypts vary considerably in tlie size and shape of 
leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits, the different species merging into one 
another so far as appearance goes, and it is therefore often difiicult to 
identify variations. When more information is available as to the 
normal time and frequency of flowering and the length of time in bud 
of the various species, the apiarist will have an additional means of 
identification when in search of bee pasture. 

ISTothing distinctive in regard to the nectar and pollen production of 
the Slender Mallee is known at present. 



Victonaii' Euatlijpl.s. 



Ill 



A. 



.1 N : ^ 



jM 



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W If 



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[ vi^^mw^ 



\'^ I X 



V 



'^7 



■y 



Fie 54 -The Slender Mallee (Enmlyptus calygcouona , F. v. M. 
Syn. E. gracilu). 



112 Tlie llonei/ Flora of Victoria. 



The Oil Mallee {Eucalyptus oleosa^. 

Fig. 55. 

As the name indicates, tliis is one of the shrubs from which eucalyptus 
oil is distilled, but notwithstanding there are several euoalypts yielding 
a larger amount (a table showing the amounts obtained from the 
different Victorian eucalypts is published further on). The species 
under review form a large proportion of the Mallee Scrub (more or 
less intermixed with other vegetation), constituting tall bushes branched 
from the rcct on wide, pavticularly sandy tracts of arid inland depres- 
sions. In the ordinary bushy state it seldom exceeds 1.5 feet in height. 
The leaves are narrow or oblong, lance-shaped, pointed, slightly curved, 
ot equal colour on both sides, often j^ale or grey-green, sometimes very 
shining and sometimes almost opaque ; veins spreading very close 
together, very faint and ofteu quite concealed ; the oil glands are dark, 
xey^j minute, and can only in young foliage be seen clear through the 
leaf. The clusters of flowers occur singly at shoulders of leaves or 
sideways on the branchlets on a slightly compressed stalk, bearing from 
four to eleven short-stalked flowers ; the buds are usually long pointed, but 
sometimes shorter and blunter, resembling those of tire Hooked Mallee 
(E. uncinata), the leaves of the latter are, however, generally narrower. 
The fruits of the Oil Mallee are small, cylindrical egg-shaped, with the 
valve flaps narrow pointed, erect, and often remaining connected at the 
])oints. Eeference to the illustration. Fig. 55, shows that the fruits 
readily distinguish this species from others resembling it in leaf and 
other features. 

The bark on aged^ plants gets corky but comes off in patches, while 
in younger plants it is smooth and pale. The porous horizontal roots, 
like those of some other Mallee Eucalypts, when broken, give a supply of 
almost pure water, hence it is also known locally as "Water Mallee. 

As a nectar and pollen-producer, this species has not, so far, been 
isolated frcm others in the company of which it grows. 



Victorian. Eucalypts. 



113 








L J ^P^ '■'"' ' '^ 



w k 



^ / 



<*' 



■>■ J' ■/ 



» /' 







i„'i r'f' '(U 



#■ \ 



>\M <? 'i 






1/ ¥. 



f inl 



Fig. 55. — The Oil Mallee (Evcalypius oleosa, F. v. M.). 



114 Tlir Ihineii Flora of Ticloria. 



The Giant Mallee (Eticnl i/ pfim iiicrassata). 

Fig. 56. 

A slirub usually of tall gro«'tli, with several stems from the same 
root, exceptionally rising to a tree up to 30 feet, but flowering already 
at a height of 4 feet. Bark smooth, outside of a whitish or reddish 
colour, persistent or shedding its outer layers ; branehlets rather thick 
and rigid, not drooping. The leaves are almost evensided, ending in a 
narrow-pointed curved end; ovate or narrow lance-shaped, thick, of 
equal and light colour, as well as shining on both sides; veins close and 
spreading at rather an acute angle, the marginal vein distant from the 
edge of the leaf. Clusters of from three to eight flowers at the shoulders 
of leaves or sideways on the branehlets. The buds are shining, generally 
streaked lengthways, half-egg or somewhat bell-shaped, fruits half-egg or 
cylinder egg-shaped, more or less furrowed and streaked, three to four, 
rarely five celled. In regard to this species, it is difficult to give a 
clear definition of the buds and fruits, as there are intermediate forms 
(Fig. 56b) between the species and its varieties (Figs. 56a and d), 
angulosa and dumosa respectively, and gradations connecting them. 

The Giant Mallee is one of the prevailing species which, with its 
varieties and other species, constitute the dense mallee scrub, and play 
an important part in the natural economy of the desert, aiding to 
mitigate the excessive heat. The power of the roots of the Mallee 
Eucalypts to absorb humidity from the soil is very great; it is well 
known that several species, including this and the one previously 
described, will yield water from the roots. 

The Giant or thick-leaved Mallee produces both nectar and pollen, 
but the quantity and quality of the former are yet unknown ; it flowers 
in March and April, and is in bud for fifteen months, so that for some 
time two generations of buds are in sight. 



Angular Giant Mallee {E ii.rah/ptiig inrraxyatit. -Var. angitlo.iu). 

Fig. 56a. 

This is a large-fruited variety of the species described previously, 
irom which it is distinguished by its larger and more angular and 
streaked buds and fruits, which are usually deeply furrowed, while the 
stalk of the cluster of flowers is thick, coiTipressed, and upwards, much 
expanded, and the lid of the bud suddenly contracted into a slender 
point; the leaves also are somewhat broader than those of the other 
varieties, so that at first sight this variety is very distinct from the 
others (Fig. 56b, 56c, and 56d) ; as, however, there are gradations con- 
necting the different forms, they cannot be looked upon as separate 
species. 

What has lieen said of the species previously described in regard to 
nectar and pollen probably also applies to this variety. 



Victorian Eucuhjpts. 



115 




Fig. 56— The Giant Mallee (Eucalyptus iiicrasmta, F. v. M.). 

A. Euc. incrassata, var. angulosa. 

B. Euc. incrassata, intermediate form. 

C. Euo. incrassata, normal form. 

D. Euc. incrassata, var. dumos«. 



110 'I'lir llonri/ Flora uf Victdria. 



The Small Giant Mallee [Eucahjjitihs incrassaia. Var. dumom. Syn. 
Eucalyptus dumosa, A. Cunn.). 

Fig. 56d on preceding page. 

This variety is classed as a distinct species by Baker and Smith, and 
described in their Research on the Eucalypts as follows: — Found in the 
interior, and rarely attains to tree form. The bark is white, persistent 
and smooth. Hence the local name " White Mallee." Leaves from 
oblong or almost ovate and blunt to laucc-shaped, under 4 inches long, 
short pointc^l, fleshy, .shining, and of a dull yellow colour; veins 
fairly prominent, lateral ones distinct, marginal vein removed from the 
edge. Oil glands quite obscured. Clusters of flowers at shoulders of 
leaves, bearing a few flowers on short stalklets. Lower part of bud 
cylindrical, occasionally angular ; lid of bud short conical." 

This is a prominent Victorian Mallee, large tracts of country being 
marked on maps of the State as " dense scrubs of Eucalyptus dumosa." 
Unfortunately, so far, no information as to the suitability for honey 
production of these large unoccupied areas in the north-west and west 
are yet available ; but, judging by the results obtained on the fringe of 
the Mallee, this class of country should afford great scope for apicul- 
tural enterprise, the Mallee flora being more of a nectar-yielding kind 
than that of moister districts, and the climate exceptionally suitable 
during the Winter. 



The Blue Mallee {Eucalyptus polybractea). 

! 
Fig. 57. 

One of the shrub Eucalypts with bluisb-green bloom on the foliage, 
hence the name Blue Mallee; the branchlets are angular, the leaves are 
lance-shaped (those on the early shoots lance to long lance-shaped) 
erect, rarely unevensided, narrow, mostly 3 inches long, pointed often 
with the point curved backwards, not shining, the midrib raised on the 
underside, giving the leaf a strong resemblance to that of the olive 
The lateral veins are oblique, spreading, finely marked, only occasionally 
distinctly pronounced, the marginal vein removed from the edge. Oil 
glands veiy numerous. The flower clusters on short stalks at shoulders 
of leaves bearing from eight to twelve flowers ; buds angular, with a 
frosted appearance in the early stages of development, and surrounded 
by numerous i^ointed ribbed whitish bracts (small leafy appendages), 
from which distinguishing feature the botanical name "polybractea" 
is derived. The lower part of the bud tapers conically into a short 
stalklet, while the uppor end or lid is blunt, or only very slightly 
])ointed ; fruit half-round to pear-shaped, and frosted in appearance. 

The Blue Mallee difi'ers from others in never attaining tree form ; 
by the above-mentioned bracts surrounding the buds and their angular 
shape; by the leaves; the four-cornered branchlets and the whitish or 
bluish bloom which is characteristic of this species. 



Y i dor inn Eucalij'pls. 



117 




Fig 57— The Blue Mallee (Eucalyptus pdybradea, R. T. Baker). 
lh,stratio„ from " A Research on the Eucalypts, &c.," by Messrs. H. T. Baker and H. G. Sm.th] 



3iy Tlir Honvji Flora of Vict-jrin. 



The Green Mallee {E ncnhjptUH viridh. Syn. Eucalyptus acaciodes). 

Fig. 58. 

A Mallee of dense growth, the stems usually 2 to 3 inches in 
diameter, though occasionally measuring 20 feet in height, it rarely 
grows to tree size. Bark smooth, or only rough at the base of the larger 
trees. Sucker leaves constantly narrower than normal leaves. Leaves 
erect, narrow, lance-sliaped to almost linear, mostly 2 to 4 inches long, 
pointed or blunt-ended, not shining, but of a rich green colour, a feature 
from which both the vernacular and the botanical name is derived. The 
veins of the leaves are rather obscured, spreading, the marginal vein 
not far from the edge. Flower clusters at shoulders of leaves, bearing 
from seven to twelve flowers. Buds pear-shaped, with half-round, short- 
pointed lid; fruit pear-ishaped, with a thin rim contracted at the edge. 

The bark is of a fibrous nature, but not deeply furrowed, and of a 
peculiar rich yellow colour on the inner side. Timber dark and close 
grained, interlocked, yellowish-coloured. Being a Mallee, it is only 
rarely found in tree form, when it has a tendency to become hollow i)i 
the stem. 

As in the case of the one previously described, no information can 
yet be given as to its habits of flowering and its value for honey 
production. 



Victoriuii. E n call j pis. 



11!) 




Fig. 58.-The Green Mallee (Eucalyptus nridh. Syii. maHcCe.). 



I 2u The Iloiii 1/ [''lord of ]' icforia. 



EUCALYPTUS OIL. 

As inquiries a'e fi-equently recEaved as to the amoiuit of oil obtain- 
able from the dffeient species of eucalypts, and only very expensive 
scientific books are available on the subject, it appears to be advisable 
to publish a list of the Victorian eucalypts under their common and 
also their botanical names, together with the percentage of oil and the 
amount in lbs. and ozs. obtainable per LOGO lbs. of foliage. 

It must, however, not be understood that those species containing 
the highest percentage of oil would be the most profitable in the com- 
mercial production cf eucalyptus oil. 

The oils of different species vary considerably in quality and in value. 
Some of the eucalypts with a high percentage oif oil are large trees, and 
involve a considerably larger amount of labour and a greater amount 
of waste than some of the Mallee species, the foliage of which is easy to 
collect, and the oil, though not present in the highest percentages, is of 
finer quality. 

There are, cf course, other local factors, such as a supply of water, 
distance from railway, &c., which are not within the scope of this 
publication. 



■ ict 



oniiii Encaljipls. 



VI \ 



Amount of odl Oibtaiued nm- l (\nt\ lu c v ,■ 



'i/pts. 



Amount op Oil Obtained per 1,000 lbs. Foliage. 



Vernacular Xaiue. 



3 
4 

5 
6 
7, 
8, 
9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29 
30 
31, 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45, 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 



Narrow-leaf Peppermint 
Broad-leaf Peppermint 
Red Mountain Asli 
:. River White Gum . . 
. VVhitetop Gum , . . . \ 

Gully Gum 

Blue Mallee . . ' ' ' 

Spotted Blue Gum 

Mealy Stringybark . . ' 

Green Mallee 
Small Giant Mallee 
Oil Mallee . . . . ; 

Gippsland Box 
Slender Mallee 
Mountain Gum 
. Giant Mallee 
. White Brittle Gum 
. Red Box . . . . . . ■ ; 

, Sallow Gum 
, Blue Gum 

, White Stringybarlv ' . 

Long-leaf Box 
Messmate 
Yellow Box 
Scented Box 

Peppermint Gum (Sydney Peppermint) 
But But 
Bull Mallee 
Lemon-scented Gum 
Grey Box . . 
Red Ironbark 
Woolly Butt 
Black Box . . 

Forest Red Gum . . 
Hooked Mallee 
Silvertop • . 

Apple Gum 
Manna Gum 
River Red Gum 
Black Sallee 
Red Stringybark 
Soribbly Gum 
Swamp Gum 
Spotted Gum 
Black Butt 
Brown Stringybark 
Grey Ironbark 
Mahogany Gum . . 
Blooci Wood 
Candlebark Gum . . 



Botanical Xii 



Eiirah/ptK.^ Avxlraliutiit 
,lire« . . 

., gif/aiitea 

>, ladiata . . 

,. ritri'ic 

Hmilhii . . 

,, l<o]yhrnrtut 

,, Manlfitii 

f, rinei-(>a . . 

,1 riridU . . 

,. iltrniosa . . 

,^ oletj'^a . . 

., JiosUtiirntff 

>> cah/gcogona 

,. goHioraly.r 

:, iitrrassata 

,, maculosa 

,, polyatUhritKis 

,, cainpliorit 

,- globulus 

,, eugpiiioidi'-'i 

, , Hwopkoiu 

,, obliqua. . . 

f, tiielliudi^ra 

,, odorata . . 

, . piperita 

,, Bridgesiaua 

, , Behriana 

,. cifriodora 
heiniphloin 
fildtroxylon 
longifnlia 

,, hicolor . . 

,, tereticoni.is 

, , uncina/a 

, , Sleberiana 

., Stuartiana 

,, viiulnalis 

,, rostrala . . 

, , -stellulata 

, , macrfyrrky/f.ha 

,, hamaslomn 

., ovata 

,, macula ta 

,, jnlularis 

,, capitellata 

,, paniculata 

,, botryoidef; 

,, corymbosa 

,, rubida . . 



33 l!- 



17 


10 


16 


7 


14 


13 


14 


5 


13 


8 


13 


1 


U 


14 


10 


10 


10 





9 


11 


9 


11 


9 


(1 


8 


13 


S 


12 


8 


7 


8 


(> 


8 


6 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


5 


6 


12 


6 


1:' 


6 


6 


e, 


4 


6 


3 


6 


2 


5 


14 


5 


9 


y 


6 


o 


6 


» 


3 


4 


13 


4 


5 


4 


3 


3 


15 


3 


9 


3 





2 


15 


2 


12 


2 


7 


.) 





1 


11 


1 


5 


1 





14 


14 



10 







1 



J^OTE, — Number.? 16, 25, and 35 do not appear in Messrs. Baker & Smith's list, and are taken from 
F. von Mueller's Eucalyptographia. 



122 Tlie lloncji Flora of Vicioria. 



Vin. Banksias (Honeysuckles). 

The Coast Banksia (BaiiJcsia integnfolia.) 

Fig. 59. 

There are over forty species of Banksia. but five only occur as natives 
in Victoria, of wliich the Coast Banksia is tlie largest, developing some- 
times into a tree 40 to 50 feet liigli, with a trunk diameter up to 4 feet. 
It is commonly known as Honeysuckle, Tree-Honeysuckle, and most ap- 
propriately as Coast Honeysuckle, on account of the situations it fre- 
quents. It is also called White Honeysuckle to distinguish it from Red 
Honeysuckle (Banksia serrata), the timber of which is far redder. The 
botanical name of this group, " Banksia," is in honour of Sir Joseph 
Banks, who, for long, was pa-esideait of the Royal Society of Londoai, 
while the specific name, integrifolia, signifies " entire leaf," in reference 
to the margin of the leaf. 

The leaves are lance-shaped, or oblong, wedge-shaped, blunt-ended, 
quite entire, but sometimes irregularly toothed, 3 to 4 inehe.s long, in some 
specimens nmcli longer, and from 1- to near 1 inch broad ; white under- 
neath, with a not very prominent network of veins. The young shoots 
and young leaves are covered with wcolly hair till nearly full grown. 
Flower spikes from 3 to 6 inches long, oblong, cylindrical. Fruit cone 
oblong, cylindrical, seed capsules prominent, but not thick as in the Saw 
or Red Banksia (Banksia serrata)'. 

The Coast Banksia is found in the south-east of Victoria, but it has 
also been reported from the Grampians. 

The timber is pinkish in colour, beautifully grained, and takes a good 
polish ; it is, however, but little used as an ornamental timber, being em- 
ployed chiefly for ribs and knees in boats, bullock yokes, &c. 

The flower is, as a rule, a profuse yielder of both nectar and pollen. 
The honey obtained from it is somewhat high-coloured, rather strong, and 
has a distinct aroma peculiar to the Banksias; it candies quickly and 
hard. 



Viclorian B auks i ax. 



123 




ig. 59.— The Coast Banksia (Banhia integrifolia). 



Fig 



The II one 1/ Flora of Victoria. 



The Silver Banksia {Banlcsia marginata). 

Fig. 60. 

The Silver Banksia, generally known as " Honeysuckle," is the most 
widely distributed of the Victorian species, being found east, west, north, 
and south. It is usually a bushy shrub of from 10 to 15 feet high, grow- 
ing sometimes into a tree of considerablo size, sometimes low, straggling, 
or depressed. 

Leaves broadly linear, or oblong, lance-shaped, blunt, often square at 
the ends, usually smooth-edged, 1 to 2 inches long, but in fjowerless 
branches, or even on some flowering specimens, some or all the leaves 
are much larger, more or less toothed, all leaves very white underneath 
(hence the common name). 

Flower spikes oblong, cylindrical, 2 to 3, rarely 4 inches long ; in 
some dwarf varieties nearly globular. 

Pruit cone oblong, cylindrical; seed capsules prominent, not thick, 
rounded, h inch broad, at first covered with hair. 

The wood is soft, porous, and spongy, when dead, and in a certain 
stage of decay, it. makes the best fuel for the beekeepers' smoker, the 
smoke given off being clean, cool, and of not unpleasant odour. 

The flower yields nectar and pollen freely after good autumn rains. 
The honey is somewhat strong, and candies quickly. The Silver Banksia 
blossoms in some districts from February to May ; in others from April 
to July. Near the Grampians, there is a dwarf form a^ well as the 
normal type, from which it in no way differs botanically. 

In many localities where the Silver Banksia was formerly plentiful, it 
is now almost extinct. The former trees have died of old age, or have 
been cut down in drought seasons as feed for stock, by which the leaves 
are so readily eaten, that no seedlings survive. 



Victorian Banl-sias. 



12t 




Fig. 60. — The Silver Banksia (Banksia marginala). 



12C 



The Hoiivii Flora of Vtcloria. 



The Saav Banksia (Banhsia serrata). 

Fig. 61. 

A busily tree confined to the east of Victoria.. The leaves arei oblong, 
lance-shaped, pointed or blunt, regularly and deeply toothed, 3 to 6 
inches long, | to 1 inch wide, leathery and flat, hoary or rarely white 
underneath. 




Fig. 61. — The Saw Banksia (Banksia serrata). 

Flower spikes oblong, cylindrical, very thick, 3 to 6 inches long. 
Fruiting cone matted, hairy; seed capsules very prominent, thick, and 
hard, about 1 inch broad. 

Wood, purplish, mahogany coloured, useful for furniture. 

The Saw (cr Red) Baiiksia flowers in December and Januar/, and 
yields nectar very heavily under favorable conditions, the honey being 
much of the character of the preceding species and those followino-. 



Victorian. Banksias. 



127 



The Desert Banksia (Bank.ia ornata). 
Fig. 62. 

keepers o/th. w It "„ district af'' Ba'n W '"^.' '"^^ '^^°"'^ *° *^^ ^^- 
term the SilvPi- Rn,.V ■ , , Banksia," without any distinctive 

term the biheiEanksia m a like maimer being termed "Honeysuckle." 
The Desert Banksia is a rather ornamental shrub, compact m struc 
ure, with a deep blue-green foliage. The leaves Ire oblc^ig \edge- 
lonrl r''*^' ?' .stalk with regular teeth on the edges, 2 to 4 Inches 
neatii '"^ ' "" '^'' transverse veinslromment under 




Fig. 62. 

Flower spikes, oblong, egg-shaped, 2 to 4 inches long, or globular. 
Fruiting cone egg-shaped, seed capsules very thick, and fully | inch 
broad. 

It flowers from April to July, and is a heavy yielder of nectar and 
pollen, so that brood rearing is kept up in the hives right into winter, 
insuring successful wintering of the bses, which :n part is due to the com- 
parative warmth of the localities where this Banksia grows. The honey, 
like that from the other Banksias, is not first class, candies quickly, some- 
times even in the outside combs of the hive, but the Desert Banksia is 
nevertheless a most valuable bee plant, taking in autumn the place which 
the Cape weed fills in spring. 



\-AS 



TJie JIoiKii Flora of Victoria. 



The Hill Fanksia [lianhxid co/n/ui). 

Fig. 63. 

A tall, erect shrub attaining a height of 8 to 12 feet, found princi- 
pally in the south, north-east, and east of the State, and also sometimes 
known as Hairpin, on account of the wirelrke bent back stamens of the 
flower. 




Fig. 63. 



Leaves narrow, linear, 11 to 3 inches long, more or less toothed, or 
rarely quite' even. Flower spike oblong, cylindrical, 3 to 6 inches long. 
Fruiting cone cylindrical, seed capsules thick and scarcely protruding. 

The Hill Eanksia is said to produce nectar so freely at times that it 
runs down on to the ground. Nothing definite, however, is known on 
this point, as probably no large apiary has so far been located near a con- 
sidera.ble number of this Banksia. Like the Desert Banksia, it is orna- 
mental, and worthy of cultivation in gardens. 



Victorian Tea Trees. 129 



IX. Tea Trees. 

Tea Tree {Lcptospermnm). 

A group of shrubs which are seldom dwarf, and sometimes assume 
the dimensions of small trees. The leaves are small, scattered, 
the branchlets sometimes crowded. The open five-petalled white, or 
sometimes pinkish, flowers are mostly stalkless, the fruit tliree or more 
celled. 

There are seven distinct species in Victoria, some of which are vari- 
able in the size and shape of leaves and flowers, making differentiation 
somewhat difficult. All the species have one characteristic in common, 
namely, that the flowers generally s^cretei nectair very freely, which, when 
transformed into honey by the bees, is in colour about on© of the darkest 
of Victorian honeys, has a strong, rank flavour, and, as it sets like jelly 
in the cells, it cannot be removed from the combs in the extractor. It 
is quite unsuitable for marketing as table honey, although people living 
in tea-tree country, and getting it out of their own hives, become used 
to it, and even like it. One use to which this honey can be put is in 
the manufacture of plug tobacco, for which purpose some quantity of 
honey is used annually. When newly-gathered tea-tree honey is quite 
thin, but as soon as it has reached a certain degree of density it sets 
into a jelly-like condition, and the evaporation then ceases, so that it 
always contains a higher percentage of water than others of our honeys. 
After removal from the combs, which can only be done by pressing or 
melting, it often partially candies with a very coarse grain. 

In the locating of a|piaries for the commercial production of honey 
it is best to keep away from tea tree belts, but in seasons when other 
sources fail bees can, with advantage, be moved on to tea-tree country. 
Notwithstanding its unpleasant flavour and jelly-like texture the honey 
is excellent bee food, and as the flower of the tea tree yields pollen, 
as well as nectar, thus encouraging brood rearing, the colonies are 
therefore always in good condition. 

The tea-tree flavour is in Australia often erroneously called 
"eucalyptus flavour," while what in Great Britain is known as the 
eucalyptus flavour of Australian honey is what we here so much appre- 
ciate as the " box tree flavour." 

The Coast Tea Tree (Leptospermum Icevigatitm) . 

This is the common Tea Tree, plentiful in the sandy country along 
the sea shore; it is, however, also found inland. In size it ranges from 
a shrub to a small tree attaining a height of 20 to 30 feet. 

The leaves are oblong, broader at the end, or narrow, oblong, and 
blunt ended ^ to f inch, but sometimes 1 inch long, more or less visibly 
three nerved. The foliage has a dull appearance. The flowers are white, 
and rather large in comparison with the other species. They are stalkless 
and occur at shoulders, singly, and on rare occasions two together, on a 
short common stalklet. The fruit is five to ten celled, and almost flat 
topped. 

The Coast Tea Tree :s useful in binding loose sand and when closely 
planted makes a good hedge; it flowers in September and October, and 
is the cause of the strong flavour of honey from hives near the sea side. 

1977.— 5 



130 



The Hdiii')/ Flora of Vicforia. 



The Manuka (Lcjifogpermnui 
xcoiiiinii 111). 

Figs. 64 and 63. 

Of the [-even sj^ecies cf Leptcsper- 
miiiii found in Victoria the Manvika 
IS the nicst widely distribvited. 
Manuka is the aboriginal name, but 
it isi known in the' bush as Tea-Tree, 
Ti-Tree, and Wild May. It is a 
ligid, very much branched shrub, 
and thc' young shciots havei geuerally 
a. silky appearance. In alpine situa- 
tions it is sometimes low and almost 
]jrcstrate, but more usually erect and 
attaining occasionally to a height 
of 12 feeit. The leaves are from egg- 
shaped pointed to' narrow-lance 
shapied, shaiply pointed, and gener- 
ally under h inch long. The adult 
foliage is usaially smooth and hairless. 
The' flowers are white, stalkless, and 
occur singly in the axils of leaves or 
terminating short latea-al branchlets 
in the case of forms flowering early in 
the season (Fig. 64), while in late 
districts the flowers are well down 
below the new leaf growth (Fig. 65), 
SO' that thei two forms givei the im- 
pression of being two distinct species. 
There' is also great variation in the 
shap-e and si2,e of the. leaves of this 
species in different localities, and as 
the differe'nt species merge into one 
another they are very difficult toi dis- 
tinguish. From the apiarist's point 
of view, however, there is little dif- 
ference between the species, the 
honey from all of them having the 
same oharacteristicS'. The Manuka 
is common in Victoria in heathlands 
and moist situations. It flowers ac- 
cording to locality in October, 
November, December, January, and 
February, Fig. 64 representing it up 
to December. The forms flowering 
in January and February arei shown 
in Fig. 65. 




Fig. 64. 



Vlvlonaii Tea Trees. 



131 




Fig. 65— Manuka {Leptospermum scoparium). 



132 



The Honey Flora of Victoria. 



The Myrrh Tea Tree {Le ptospermum myrsinoides). 

Fig. 66. 

A somewhat dwarf species, bushy and rather ornamental, with white 
or somewhat pinkish flowers. In habit it sometimes approaches the 
Manuka (Z. ecaparium'), but the leaves are not so sharp, sometimes 
'r inch long, but generally less, oblong linear or broader at the end. 




blunt ended, rigid, and concave. The flowers are small, white, or 
pinkish, almost all on very short, leafy branchlets, often several flowers 
together. This species is common in heathy tracts in the western 
districts, the north-west, the Wimmera, and the Snowy Eiver. In most 
localities it flowers in September and October. 



icturian 'Tea 'Trees. 133 



The Woolly Tea Tree (Leptn.',permnm lanigertim). 

bu.ltv '^Thl^T^'' ^"'"'f'^'^^ g-jo^^iag i^to a small tree, rarely low and 
S^'l. ? bf'i^f le s and the underside of the leaves usually beset 
with short, silky hairlets, henco, both the vernacular name " Woollv 
lea Iree., and the specific " lanigerum " signifying woolly 

The leaves are from ovate oblong toi elliptical or narrow oblong very 
variable m size, and shapei, normally not above. A inch long In some 
varieties the leaves are all ve,;y much smaller," but in some luxunant 
specimens they a,re i inch long, or ev€-n longer, more, or less hoary-silky, 
or- hairy on the underside, or on both sides; but rarely totally hairless. 
The leaves when broad and thin show one, threie, or five nerves Mwe 
frequently, ho-wever, they are thick leathery, and the nerves scarcely 
visible. 

The flowers are solitary on short, leafy branchlets or sometimes on the. 
branches, stalkless, and without intervening leaves, white and often 
ratheir large. This variety of tea tree flowers in October, November, 
January, and February, according to locality. The wood is hard anci 
heavy, and was used by the aborigines for making spear handles. The. 
Woolly Tea Tree is found in all parts of Victoria, particularly in Gipps- 
land, mountain districts, and the neighbourhood of Melbo.ui-ne, 

The Myrtle Tea Thee {Leptospermum myrti folium). 

A tall shrub, attaining a height of 8 to 10 feet, but flowering already 
when only 1 to 2 feet high. The branches are usually slender, smooth, 
or silky, the leaves generally small, and rarely | inch long, oblong, or 
broader at the end, flat or hollow on the surface, nerveless, or one or 
three nerved, and either smooth or silky white. The flowers are of 
medium size, all or nearly all occur singly at the ends of short leafy 
branches, and are stalkless. The wood is dark in colour, tough and 
close grained. The Myrtle Tea Tree is found in the Grampians, and 
flowers in November. 



The Tantoon (Leptospermum flavesce/ts). 

Usually a tall shrub, attaining a height, of 8 to 1.5 fe.et, with a stem 
diameter of 5 to 8 inches. The wood is hard, and close grained. Its 
leaves are from neurraw ofclong toi narrow lance.-shaped, broadly oblong, 
or even broader at the end than at the basei, blunt ended or scarcely 
pointed, -J inch long in the largest forms, but usually under -J inch, 
and sometimes all very small. The leaves are generally smooth, rigid, 
flat, and neirveless, or one or three, nerved, the young parts minutely 
silky. The flowers are. white or sometimes turning slightly yellowish ; 
they occur singly at the end of branchlets, or at the shoulders of leaves, 
and almost stalkless. The fruit is hard, quite convecx at the summit, 
and usually five oe.lled. 

The Tantoon is found in the Buffalo. Range, and on the Yarra, 
Gculburn, and Ovens Rivers. 



i:J4 The Huno/ Flora of Victoria. 



X. Honey Myrtles or Bottlebrush Tea Trees 

(Mehdeuca.) 

There are over ninety species of M'Slaleucas or Hcney Myrtles, thirteen 
of which occur in Victoria. They are known under diverse' local names 
such as Tea Treei, Bottlebrush, Bottlebrush Tea> Tree and Paper Bark. 
Tiiey arei, hoiweiver, quite distinct in their floral characters from the Tea 
Trees proper (Leptospprnium), but resemble closely and merge into the 
etuus Callistemon or Bottlebrushes. From the latter the Melaceuca 
differ chiefly in having smaller leaves and the smaller, shorter and 
different coloured flowers. 



Swamp Paper Bark (Jlelalciica erici folia). 

0)U' of the commonest of the Honey Myrtles or Bottlebrush Tea Trees 
found along watercourses and swamps of Southern, Eastern and North- 
Eastern districts. It is a shrub or tree, attaining sometimes a. con- 
siderable height and stem diameter. The leaves are scattered, numerous, 
narrow linear, blunt ended, rarely sharply pointed, seldom over -1 inch 
long. 

Elowecs yellowish white (rarely red) in oblong or nearly globular 
terminal heads cr in oblong cylindrical spikes A to' 1 inch long. 

The wood is often extensively used for bush fences, rustic work, 
clothes props, &c. 

The honey obtained from this species is pale in colour, somewhat jell}' 
like, rather strong, but not unextractable, when fresh, like that of Leptos- 
]>ei'mum,3 . 

The name Paper Hark is on account of the soft paperlike nature of 
the inner bark of large specimens. 



The Scented Paper Bark {Melaleuca scpiarrosa). 

Fig. 67. 

A haudfrsmei erect shrub, usually 6 to 10 feet, high, but sometimes 
twice that height. The leaves broadly ovate to ovate lanceolate, sharply 
pointed, generall)' under i inch long, five or seven nerved, are arranged 
in four narallel lines along the stem. The flowers are yellowish white, 
stalkle«s, in oblcng or cylindrical spikes, 1 to' 2 inches long. At first 
they are at the end of branchlets, but the axis often growing out before 
flowering is over. 

This species is fairly plentiful in the Grampians country, but also 
occurs in other districts; it is easily distinguished from other species by 
the four parallel and symmetrical rows of leaves and the paperlike inner 
bark, which, howerver, it shares 'with other speciesi. The flowers are 
fragrant, hence the' comlmon name Scented Paper Bark. 

It produces both nectar and pollen resembling that of the previous 



Vi.cl<,rian. Honeij Mi/rtles. 



135 




Fig. 67. — Scented Paper Bark MdaleAim sqnarrona). 
[From E. E. Pescott's Native Flou'ers of Vtctoria.] 



J36 The. Honey Flora of Victoria. 



The Moonah (Melulrii.cu parviflorii). 

A tall shrub or tree with white or yellowish flowers, in loose oblong 
cylindrical spikes 1 to 2 inches long which are' rarely terminal, the axis 
growing out very early into a leafy shoot. Thei leaves are scattered, 
rather crowded, lance shaped or oblong, narrow pointed or blunt ended, 
larely e-xceeding it inch in length. This species occurs in the Port 
Phillip district, Eacchus Marsh, and on the Murray. 

The Snowy Honey Myrtle (Mi'lideitca actmiinafa). 

A shrub or tree with sharply-pointed, lance-shaped, or oblong leaves 
and whitish flowers in lateral clusters o-n the previous year's branches. 
Found in the Winunera and Murray Desert. 



The Red Honey Myetle (Melnleuca kt/pericifolia). 

A tall shrub, with red flowers larger than those of other species. 
Leaves ^ to 1-| inch long resembling the leaves of St. John's Wart 
(//i/'pei-iciim perfm-atmn), hence the specific name hypericifolia. It is a 
New South Wales species, but extends into Victoria. 



The Slender Honey Myrtle (.l/elaleuca ijU/hosa). 

An erect shrub, 6 to 12 feet high, with rather small and not 
niimeirous purple, flowers in oblong or almost globular lateral heads often 
forming the basei of leafy branches. LeaveiS mostly opposite, from 3-16 
to f inch long, blunt-ended or tipped with sharp points. ' Found in 
marshy places in the Grampians, the Glenelg River, and Portland. 

The Cross Honey Myrtle (Melaleuca deciismta). 
A tall shrub attaining sometimes 20 feet, with oblong, lance-shaped 
or almcst linear, blunt or pointed leaves -} toi h inch long and rather 
small puqilish flowers in oblong or almost globular lateral heads which 
are usually barren or cylindrical interrupted spikes forming the base of 
leafy branches. Found chiefly in the Grampians. 

The Purple Honey Myrtle (Melaleuea Wifsoni). 

\ tall handsome shrub with leaves i to A inch long, linear or linear 
lance shaped pointed. Flowers purplish fed.' Localities: Wimmera and 
Lake Hindmarsh. 

The Bracelet Honey Myrtle {}I rhiJenea a)iiiihirh), 

A tall shrub or tree up to 30 feet, common en river banks at the 
south-eastern extremity of the State. 

Leaves, scattered, crowded, linear, pointed, I inch long, or rather 
mere, flowers whitish. 



Victorian Honey Myrtles. 137 



The Broom Honey Myrtle (Mf/almca uncinata). 

A tall shrub with linear (narrow) alternate leaves 1 to 2 inches long. 
Flowers white, small and numerous, in vei-y dens© ohlong or almost 
globular teiminal heads, the centre often growing out into a shoot before 
flowering is ovei-. Wood hard, close, and durable. 

Wimmera and noi'th-wesf. of Victoria. 



The Mealy Honey Myrtle (Milaleuca squaniea). 

A shrub with numeirous scattered, usually spreading leaves, egg or 
lance shaiped pointed to' almost linear, distinctly three nerved, -^- rarely 
A inch long. Flowers reddish )5urple, white or yellowish in small globular 
terminal heads. 

In the Grampians and on the Glenelg. 



The Blistered Hoijey Myrtle (Melaleuca palmatrurofium. Syii. M. 

inistulata). 

A bushy scrub, 2 to G feet m height. Leaves scattered, often 
crowded, from oblong or lance-shaped to almost linear, blunt ended, 
\ inch long or less. Flowers small, whitish, not numerons, in small 
terminal leafy heads, the centre scon growing out into a leafy shoot. 
Known as Paper Bark in the Wimmera. 



The Mallee Honey- Myrtle {Melaleuca negleeta). 

A species only recently isolated from the preceding one with which 
foir all practical purposes it is identical. 



The Bottlebrushes (Callistemon). 

The Bottlebrushes are a genus confined to Australia. There are six- 
teen species, eight of which are native to Vicloria. They are closely allied 
to the Honey Myrtles or Bottlebrush Tea -trees (Melaleuca), which they 
resemble remarkably in their floral characters, differing from them, 
however, in the length and breadth of their leaves and the length and 
colour of the stamens of the flower. Th© features which distinguish the 
Bottlebrushes from the Honey Myrtles or Bottlebrush Tea-trees are the 
larger leaves as well as the longer stamens of the former, which are 
always over half an inch in length while those of the Honey Myrtles do 
not exceed half an inch. 

All the Bottlebrushes yield nectar and pollen, and altiiough the 
honey obtained from them cannot be considered of the best quality, these 
shrubs are nevertheless of great value to the bee-keeper m the localities 
where they grow, as they provide nectar and pollen m October iNovem- 
ber and December, according to the -pecies, a time when both these bee 
foods are most needed for the full development of the colonies. 



tJlS '/'/((; lloiu'i/ Flora of Vicioria. 



The Scarlet Bottlebrush {'Jnllisti'iiion nn/ulofnis. Syn. C. i-ii(:cincii,x). 

A shrub very closely allied to the Crimson Bottlebrush. The leaves 
are lauce-shaped, rigid, almost pungent, from 1 to li inches long, the 
mid rib prominent The flowers are scarlet, not very dence, stamens ^ 
to 1 inch long, with yellow anthers. 

The Scarlet Bottlebrush is found in the Grampians country and 
flowers in November and December. Like most of the Bottlebrushes it 
frequents the banks of rivers and creeks, and other moist situations. 



The Crimson Bottlebrusi[ (CalUfttenioii lanceolatus). 
Fig. 68. 

The Crimson Bottlebrush is u.sually a tall shrub sometimes attaining 
R height of 30 feet, but occasionally the shrubs are low and bushy. 
The leaves are lance-shaped, variable in breadth, usually pointed, and 
from li to 2 inches long, but varying from 1 to 3 inches. The crimson 
flower spikes are from 2 to 4 inches long, and not vei^ dense. The 
petals are greenish or reddish, and the stamens crinuon, in some 
specimens deeply coloured, in others much paler, more slender, and 
scarcely above half an inch in length. The Crimson Bottlebrush is found 
m East Gippdand. It yields both nectar and pollen, and flowers 
generally in October. 



1 iclonmi lli)ltli'l)nish. 



139 




Fig. 



. 68— The Crimson Bottlebrush {Callidemon /anceolaiu,). 



140 Tha Honey Flora of Victoria. 



The Willow Bottlebrl'sh {CaUistemon saligmis.) 

A tall shrub or. small tree, attaining sometimes 30 to 40 feet in 
height, and often indistinguishable in foliage and flowers from the 
Criuifon Bottlebrusli (Cal/islenwn lanceolat.ua) The leaves are, how- 
ever, usually more pointed, and the flowers generally smaller, than in 
the Crimson Bottlebrusli. 

It is found in all parts of Victoria, particularly along the Yarra, 
Ovens, Goulburu, and other rivers. It is a nectar and pollen producer 
like the other species. 



The Swamp Bottlebrush {CaUistemon jyahulosva). 

A species with narrow, almost linear, leaves, and whitish or yellowish 
flowers, growing in swampy localities. No' data as to its honey or pollen 
yielding qualities are so far available. Along water courses in the 
south, south-east, north-west, and north east. 



The Mountain Bottlebrush (CaUistemon Sieheri). 

This is a mountain species with short, almost linear, leavee, from 
-h to 4 of an inch in length, and red flowers, usually in short spikes. 
Found at Mount Wellington and Snowy River. 



The Pine Bottlebrush {CaUistemon yithy aides). 

A tall shrub confined to the north-east of the State. The leaves are 
linear, more or les& distinctly channelled on the upper side, rigid, blunt, 
or sharply pointed, from 2 to 4 inches long, resembling pine leaves, 
hence the name. The flowers are rather large and of a dull yellowish- 
green, including the anthers. 



The Narrow-leaved Bottlebrush {CaUistemon linearis). 

Usually a tall shrub with narrow linear leaves, from 2 to 5 inches 
long, blunt or sharp-pomted. The flowers are large, with stamens about 
1 inch long, dark or pale red sometimes greenish 



The Prickly Bottlebrush {CaUistemon hrachyandrus). 

The Prickly Bottlebrush if' a tall, stiff, bushy shrub or small tree, the 
young shoots softly hairy. The leaves are linear, channelled above, 
rigid, and sharply pointed, and from | to IJ inches in length. The 
flower spikes are loose and interrupted, or cometimes dense, and rarely 
2 inches in length. Tliis species is found in the Murray Desert. 



irlonuii (^raas Trees. 



141 



Grass Tree {Xanthonliua.) 
Erect usually robust plants with narrow, very Ion?, rigid, and 
comparatively thick leaves and upright flower spikes with numerous 
whitish flowers There are three species, two of which are widely dis- 
tributed over the State, while one, the Spear Grass Tree, is confined to 
the tar east of Victoria, 




Fig. 69. — Grass Tree. 

Southern Grass Tree {Xanthorrhaa australis). 

Fig. 69. 

This is the Common Grass Tree known by several local names such as 
Black Boys or Kangaroo Tails. It has a trunk like a fern tree, but 
with long narrow, drooping blades or leaves. The usually solitary 
flower spike, which is sometimes up to 3 feet long is carried on a stout 



14:2 Till- JIdiii'i/ Flora of V i<t<ir'iu. 

upright stalk. Grass Trees furnish a resin soluble in alcohol, containing; 
the base of picric acid. This resin, which exists in this species in con- 
siderable quantities, is very inflammable, and grass trees therefore burn 
fiercely, are however seldom killed by fire, and flower generally speak- 
ing, only after being burnt the previous season. 

Bees gather the resin eagerly and use it as propolis for filling cracks 
and the spaces between the ends of the top bars of the frames 
and the hive wall. During cool weather this resin sets so hard and 
cementlike that the frames become almost unworkable, while, during 
warm temjjeratures, it adheres to everything coming in contact with it. 
Being soluble in alcohol it is however easily removed from the hands 
by methylated spirits or petrol. 

The flower of the grass tree furnishes pollen to bees, and profusely 
secretes a very watery nectar, often neglected by bees, which when 
gathered produces a rank unpalatable honey. Except in seasons when 
no other nectar-yielding blossoms are available, grass-tree country 
should be avoided in locating apiaries on account of the trouble of the 
glueing together of everything in the hive and of the poor quality of 
the honey. 



Spear Grass Thee (Xniitho'irho'a hastilis). 

This is confined toi the far East, and up toi thei present nothing 
kuawn as tO' utility for beiei-keeping. 



Small Grass Tree (Bayonet Grass) {Xanthorrhwa minor). 

Fig. 70. 

The well-known, rough, tussocky grass, found on usually sour soil 
with a clay subsoil, all over the State, except in the North-East. Like 
the Grass Tree it flowers only after burning. The flower spike is smaller 
but often quite a number spring from the same plant. The leaves 
are unpalatable to animals, excepting the underground, soft, white 
portion, which, in times of food scarcity, is pulled out by kangaroos, 
scratched out by rabbits, and also eaten by stock when the tussocks are 
uprooted by the stock-owner, when forage is scarce. 

The flower yields pollen, and is a valuable hel,p to the bees in 
drought seasons when pollen is scarce. The nectar is watery, and some- 
times secreted so freely that it can be ghaken out of the blossom into 
the ,palm of the hand. Like the nectar of the Grass Tree it is sometimes 
neglected, possibly on account of the extreme dilution. 

Small Grass Tree also contains resin, but as the base of the plant is 
underground and only accessible to bees when uprooted it does not 
cause trouble with propolis in bee-hives. 



Vlctorniii (irass Tri-c.s. 



143 




Fig. 70.— Bayonet Grass (Xaiithorrhcea minor). 



144 



Index of Common Names. 



Index of Common Names. 

(Pages of specific references are printed in black tj'jje — general references in lighter type.) 







EUCALYPTS. 










rAUE 




PAGE 


Angular Giant Mallee 


.. 114 


Common Pejipermint 


96 


Apple Box 


26 


Drooping Box . . 




IS 


,, Gum 


24, 26 


Gum 




42 


., Tree 


16, 26, 76 


Dwarf Box 




18 


Bairnsdale Box 


. . 20 


,, Gum 




48 


Baiigalay 


86 


Flooded Gum . . 




30. 42 


Bastard Box 


16, 20, 30 


Forest Red Gum 




30 


Blue Gum 


. . 53 


Fuzzy Box 




16 


Mahogan J' 


86 


Giant Gum 




94 


White Gum 


42 


„ Mallee .. 




114 


Black Box 


12, 18 


Gipjjsland Box 




20 


,. Butt 


26, 58, 90 


,, Stringybark . 




68 


Gum 


56 


Glassy Gum 




54 


Ironbark 


.. 80 


Grampians Gum 




78 


,. Sallee . . 


56 


Green Gum 




56 


Blood Wood . . 


88 


„ Mallee . 






118 


Blue Gum 


32. 36, 38 


Grey Box 




12, 16. 20, 106 


.. (spotted) Cium 


38 


,. Gum 




16, 30, 52 


., Mallee 


116 


Ironbark . 




82 


Bull Mallee 


106 


Gully Gum 




44 


Box . . 


12. 20, 22 


Gum Apple 




24, 26 


,. Apple 


26 


Bangala}' 


.. 86 


,. Bairnsdale 


.. 20 


,, Bastard Blue 


53 


.. Bastard 


16, 20, 30 


.. Bastard AVhite 


42 


,, Black 


12, 18, 106 


.. Black 


56 


,, Drooi)ing . . 


18 


.. Black Sallee 


.. 56 


.. Dwarf 


.. 18 


.. Blackbutt 


90, 94 


., Fuzzy 


16 


,. Blue 


32, 36, 38 


,, Gippsland 


20 


.. Brittle, White 


45 


,, Grey 


. 12, 16,20, 106 


Cabbage . . 


16 


.. Longleaf . . 


16 


,, Candle Bark 


42 


,, Peppermint 


14 


„ Cider 


46, 48 


., Pved 


. 14, 16, 18, 22 


,. Drooping 


42 


,, River 


.. 18 


,, Dwarf 


48 


.. Round-leaf 


16 


Flooded . . 


30, 42 


,. Scented 


.. 22 


., Forest (Red) 


30 


„ Scrub 


.. 18 


Giant 


94 


.. Swamp 


18 


,. Glassy 


54 


„ White 


12, 14, 32 


Grampians 


78 


,. Yellow 


10, 20 


Green 


. . 56 


Black Box 


12, 18. 106 


Grey 


16, 30, 52 


Blue Peppermint 


98 


.. Gully 


44 


Brittle Gum . . "• 




45 


Ironbark . . 


32, 80. 82, 84 


Broad leaf Peppermint . 




98 


Mahogany 


86 


Brown Messmate 




58 


.. Manna 


40 


,, String vbark 




66 


,, Messmate 


. 62, 96, 102 


Bull Mallee "' . . 




. 106 


Messmate, Brown . 


,. 58 


But-But 




24 


mountain 


16, 52 


Gabbage Gum . . 




16 


,, ash 


.52, 84, 76, 94 


Candle-bark Gum 




42 


.. Neglected 


48 


Gider Gum 




46. 48 


Peppermin 


14. 


16. 72, 96, 100 



Index of Coininon Noities. 



145 



Gum, red (Forest) 
,. ,, mountain ash . . 
„ (River) 
Ribbony 
River Red 

.. Wbite 
iSandal 
Sallow 
,, Scribbly . . 
Shining 
Silver Tojj 

ironbark 
messmate 
Snow 
,, Spotted, Blue 



., (Maculata 
(maculosa 
Sugar 
,, vSwanip 

Tumble-d(jwii 
Weeping 
,. White 
,. White Brittle 
„ Sallee 
., .. Top 

„ Willow . . 
., Woollybutt 
Yellow 
Honey-seented Euealyi 
Hooked Mallee 
Ironbark 

Black 
Grev . - 
Red ,. 
Rough 
Silver-to]> 
Smooth 
White 
Ivignum Vit* . . 
Long-leaf Box 
Mahogany. Bastard 

Gum 
Mallee 

Angular (jiaiit 
,. Blue 
„ Bull 
Giant 
Green 
Hooked 
., Oil 

Slender . . 
Thick-leaved 
Small Giant 
Thick-leaved 
,. Water . . 
„ White ., 
Manna Gum 
Mealy Stringybark 
Messmate 

1977.— 6 



) ■• 



:?2, 4(1. 4ti. 



62. !>(i 



EUCALYPTS- 


-coiiliiiiied. 


I'AO t; 




30 


Messmate. Brown 


7fi 


Silver-toj) 


28 


Moutitain Ash 


40, 42 


„ Red 


28 


„ White 


104 


Gum . . 


60 


Narrcuv-jeaf Peppermint 


48 


Neglected Gum 


58 


Oil Mallee 


52 


Peppermint 14, 1 


52 


Blue 


84 


Box 


102 


Broad-leaf . . 


.54 


Gum . . 


38 


Narrow-leaf 


4.-., 52 


.S\'dne\ 


50 


Bed Box ■ . . ■ 


45 


,, ( FoT'CSt) (iuiJI 


34 


Red, (River) Gum 


46 


,, Ironbark . . 


54 


,, Mountain Asli 


54 


Stringjdiai'k 


i. 52, 54 


Ribbony (Jum 


45 


River Box 


54 


Red Gum 


102 


White Gum 


54 


Rough Ironbark 


fi2 


Round-leaf Box 


32 


iSallee, Black . . 


10 


,. White .. 


. 108 


Sallow Gum 


84 


Sandal Gum 


SO 


Scented B<jx 


82 


Scribbly Gum . . 


80. 82 


Scrub Box 


.. 80 


Shining Gum . . 


S4 


Silver Stringybark 


32 


Silver-top 


32. 82 


Gum 


14 


Ironbark 


16 


Messmate 


8(i 


Slender Mallee . . 


86 


Small Gaint Mallee 


. 106 


Smortth Ironbark 


114 


Snow Gum 


. 116 


Spotted Blue Gum 


. 106 


(Jum . . 


114 


,, (maculata) 


. 118 


,, (niaculr.sa) 


. . 108 


Stringybark 


. 112 


Brown 


. 110 


fiippsland . . 


114 


Meaiv 




Red 


.. 116 


Silver 


.. 114 


White 


.. 112 


Yellow 


llli 


Sugar (ivm 


40 


Swamp Box 


74 


Gum 


. lis, 102 


Sydney Pepperniiiil 



14 





PAGE 




58 




102 


52 


84 




76 




94 


k; 


52 




96 




48 




112 


96, 


102 




98 




14 




98 




100 




96 




100 


ii; 


18 




30 


28 


, 30 




m 




76 


64 


, 70 


4(1 


. 42 




18 




28 




104 




80 




l(\ 




56 




54 




48 




60 




22 




58 




18 




52 




74 


52 


. 84 




52 




84 




102 




110 




llfi 




32 




54 




38 


()5 


ry2 




50 




45 




62 




66 




68 


74 


7(i 




64 




74 




68 




70 




34 




18 




16 




100 



i-k; 



liulec of Co'iiuHoii. Names. 



Tliuk-lcaMMl Mailer 
'runit)ir-tl(_i\\-ii ( imn 
TiiriiontiTie Tvi-r 
Water Mullee . , 
Weepiiif; Oiim 
White Biix 

Brittle (Jum 

(Uim 

(tUTII. P>astar< 

Ironliai'k 
,, Mallee .. 



40. 



ELICALYPTS- 


-contiiinc'l. 


114 


AVhite Mountain Ash 


.i4 


River (Uim 


74 


.. Sallee . . 


112 


Stringybark 


.">4 


White-top Gum 


14. ?,2 


Wilhjw Gum 


45 


Woolly Butt 


(i. .32. .U 


^'ellow Box . . 


42 


Gum 


.32. S2 


.Strin.tivbark 


1 Hi 


Yertehuk 



94 

104 

54 

68 

102 

54 

92 

10. 20 

32 

70 

72 



Plants other than Eucalypts. 



Baiiksias 
Bank.sia. Coast 
Desert 
Hill .. 
Red . . 
Saw 
Silver.. 
Ba}"onet Grass 
Black Boys . . 
Blistered Honey Myrtle 
Bottlebrushes . . 
Bottlebrush. Crimson 
,, Mountain 

,, Narrow-lea 

,, Pine 

Prickly 
Scarlet 
Swamjj 
Willow 
Bracelet Honey Myrtle 
Broom Honey Myrtle 
(.'oast Banksia 

Honeysuckle 
., Tea Tree.. 
Crimson Bottlebrush 
(.'ross Honey Myrtle 
Desert Banksia 
Grass Tree, small 
,, .. Southern 

., Spear 
Hair] tin 

Hill Banksia . . 
Honeysuckle .. 122, 
,, Coast 

Desert 
Hill 
Red 
,, Saw 

,, Silver 

Tree 
Honey Myrtle, Blistered 
,. .. Bracelet 

,, ., Broom 

„ „ Cross 

Mallee 
-Mealv 



ed 



124, 





127 


Hon<^v .Myrtle. Purple 




122 


.. ' ' .. Red 




127 


Slender . . 




128 


Snowy 




126 


Kangaroo Tails 




126 


Mallee Honey Myrtli' 




124 


Manuka 




142 


May, Wild 




141 


Mealy Honey Myrtle 




137 


Moonah 




137 


Mountain Bottlebrush 




138 


Myrrh Tea Tree 




140 


Myrtle Tea Tree 




140 


Narrow-leaved Bottlebrus 




140 


Paper Bark. Scented 




140 


., ,, Swam]! 




138 


Pine Bottlebrush 




140 


Prickly Bottlebrusli 




140 


Purple Honey Myrtle 




136 


Red Banksia 




137 


,, Hone)' Jiyrtle 




122 


.. Honeysuckle 




122 


SaA\" Banksia 




129 


.. Honeysuckle 




138 


Scarlet BoUlebrush 




136 


Scentccl Paper Bark 




127 


Sih'er Banksia . . 




142 


Honeysuckle 




141 


Slender Honey Myrtle . 


4 


1. 142 


Small Cirass Tree 




128 


Snowy Honey Myrtle 




128 


Southern Grass Tree 


2 


i, 127 


Spear Grass Tree 




122 


Swamp Bottlebrush 




127 


Swamp Pajjer Bark 




128 


Tantoon 




126 


Tree Honeysuckle 




126 


Tea Tree 




124 


,. Coast 




122 


,, ,, MjTrh 




137 


., Myrtle 




136 


„ „ Woolly 




137 


Ti-tree 




136 


Wild May 




137 


Willow Bottlebrush 




137 


Woolly Tea Tree 



136 
136 
136 
136 
141 
137 
130 
130 
137 
136 
140 
132 
133 
140 
134 
134 
140 
140 
140 
126 
136 
126 
126 
126 
138 
134 
124 
124 
136 
142 
136 
141 

41. 142 
140 
134 
133 
122 

29. 130 
129 
132 
133 
133 
130 
130 
140 
133 



Index of Botanical Names. 



147 



Index of Botanical Names. 

{Pages of siifciHe lefeicnoes aif. prlnteil in black type — gL'iicral referenefts in ligliter type. ) 







EUCALYPTS. '., 








'M.\ K 




t^aa 


AcUf:io(lf.-<. s\'n. nri'li--^ 




118 ! 


liifra.^salfu \ar. iliimo.-iij . . 


116 


Alpina 




78 1 


Kitsoiiiann 


48 


Alpina, var. coriticea 




54 


Leuroxylon 


32 


Amygdalina, syn. Australiana 




96 


Longifolia 


92 


Anghdosa, var. incrassala 




114 


Macrorrhyufhii 


64 


Anstraliana, .syn. ainyff'lalirift 




96 


Maculata 


50 


Bauerianu 




16 


Maculosa 


45 


Behriann 


IS, 


106 


Muideni . . . . ■ 


38 


Bicolor 


18. 


lOli 


Melliodoru 


10 


Bosistoana 




20 


Muelleriava 


70 


Botryoides 




86 


Multiflora, vai'. riiarrn . . 


74 


Bridgesiana 




24 


Nilens 


52 


Calycogona, syn. ijrai ili« 




110 


Obligud 


62 


Camhagei 




16 


Odoral't 


22 


Camphora 




48 


Oleosa 


112 


Capitellata 




66 


Ovata, syn. palndosa 


46 


Cladocalyx 




34 


Paliidosa, syn. nvdUi 


46 


Cinerea 




74 


PatticulaUi 


82 


Cinerea^ var. M ultifora . . 




74 


FaiwiJIora 


54 


Considenianii 




72 


Pilularis 


58, 90 


Coriacea, syn. j/ani-ijloni 




54 


Piperita 


100 


Corymbosa 




88 


Polyantheifios 


14 


Cnrynocalyx 




34 


Polybracteci 


116 


Delegatensis, syn. giganiea 




76 


Radiata 


104 


Diversifolia, syn. santalifoliti 




60 


Regnatis 


94 


Dives 




98 


Rostral, 1 


28 


Dumosa, var. inrrassata . . 




116 


Ruhida 


42 


Eloiophora 




16 


Santalifoliu, syn. ilinrsifolia 


60 


Eugenioides 




68 


Sideroxyloii 


80 
84 
44 


Gigantea, syn. K. DcJegutensis 




76 


Sieberiana 


Globulus 


36 


, .38 


Sinithii 


Goniocalyx 

Gracilis, syn. ccdyrogna . . 


16. 52 
. 110 


Sh-ltulata 
Stuart land 


56 

24. 26 

30 

108 

40 


Gunnii 




48 


Tereticornis 


Hemiphloia 


12, 


106 


UtK'inata 


,, albrns 




14 


y intinalis 


Hcemastoma 




58 


Viridis. syn. araciodes . . 


118 
102 


Incrassata . . ■ ■ 1 


14, 


116 


Vitrea 


Incrassatn, var. nngidosii 




114 







Plants other than Eucalypts. 



Banksia, coUlna 


128 


integrifolia 


122 


marginata 


124 


„ ornata 


127 


,, serrata 


126 


Callistemon, brachyattdrus 


140 


roccineus. svn. rugii- 




losus 


138 



Callistemon, lanceolatus 
linearis 
jjaludosus 
pithyoides 
,, rugulosus, 

neus 
salignus 
Sieberi 



138 
140 
140 
140 

138 
139 
140 



U8 



Index of Botanical Names. 



PLANTS OTHER THAN 


EUCALYPTS — contiiived. 


PAUE 




Lcfito-'ipennii ni 


129 


Mehhttca, palntatvrosinii. 


;lh(rtis<-ins . . 


133 


pusluluta . 


,, lai-rigdfuiii 


129 


,, parr'tflora 


,, Ifinigerinu 


133 


,, pu.'itulaia, vai 


„ niyrs>uni(]i s 


132 


i^trosuiii 


„ myrtifol/inn 


133 


,, .sguamea 


„ scopariinn . 




130 




Mdalevca. arnminaia 




136 


■squarrosa. 


armihiris 




136 


uncinata 


eric if olid 




134 


Wilioiii 


d(_'Ci/.<!-^ata 




136 


Xanthorrficea 


ilihbos<i 




136 


X'nUhnrrhrrrt, A'lAlniUs . . 


'ln,i„n,;(,,ln, . 




136 


hitf^llHs 


neqii lid 




137 


,, /"/ nor , . 



paJnta- 



137 
136 

137 
137 
134 
137 
136 
141 
141 
142 
142 



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